2.1. Discuss different induction techniques
For the purpose of this journal I have grouped the induction techniques in three groups: relaxation techniques, interrupting the pattern techniques and distraction techniques. When I was analysing particular inductions it came to my mind that they affect the client in above three different ways.
Relaxation techniques lead the client to trance by utilising the feeling of comfort. Among this group you can find PMR and Visualisation, where the hypnotist helps the subject to take their mind away and place them in a good and safe place by asking them to recall or imagine a pleasant situation. In consequence the bridge to the clients unconscious is achieved.
Eye focus induction is a relaxation technique too. It forces the client to focus the eyes on the object without blinking and keep the eyes on the object until the eyes become strained and tired. The client becomes uncomfortable and feels the need to close the eyes reinforced by the hypnotist’s suggestions. Once the hypnotists notices the eyes are strained enough he lets the client close them. Then he suggests to the client to spread the relaxation of eye muscles all over the client’s body. The hypnotists can induce the trance and achieve the access to the subconscious as client’s consciousness is focused on struggling to stare at the object. The relaxation is even deeper as reinforced by feeling of relief once the client can close his eyes.
There are the inductions that mix relaxation technique and interrupting the pattern technique. Handshake Method might be a good example. Both Erickson’s and Bandler’s version of it use the element of strained eyes looking the hypnotist in the eyes. The other element is “interrupting” the pattern of handshake. The subject is expecting to shake hands the normal way whereupon the hypnotist surprises him by moving the hand in unusual directions. The handshake pattern is interrupted, the mind is forced to take note of the set of actions that has gone wrong and when the conscious is busy with that the subconscious can be achieved. I think different subjects react well to different techniques so it is useful to know several ways of inducing the trance. When we practiced this induction during the lesson I found it much more distracting than PMR or eye focus inductions. Traditional relaxation techniques appeared much more effective in my case.
Dave Elman’s Induction is also relaxation induction however it is quicker than traditional PMR. Firstly the client is suggested a brief body relaxation beginning from the eyes and spreading the relaxation to the rest of the body. Then the arm-drop deepener is used to deepen the relaxation. Eventually counting back loud whilst repeating “deeper relaxed” after each number makes the conscious mind focused on counting and achieving the deeper trance in the meantime.
There is a separate group of inductions, called instant inductions, which are based on distraction or shock. They might be useful for stage hypnosis and for hypnotherapy too as they give the hypnotherapist more time for further work during the session. Shock techniques rely on distracting the client by doing something quick or unexpected whilst they were focused on some other activity. Consequently conscious gets startled and the way to subconscious is open.
Slightly different instant induction is The Trigger induction. Trigger needs to be installed when the client was in good state of hypnosis during trance that has been induced earlier by another method. It can be a word or a phrase that can be cast at the client during later sessions making them instantly achieve the trance state they were at the time when the trigger was installed. The trigger expression may be used also as a deepener if it was installed that way.
2.2. Use client information to devise a course of treatment
X visited me as she volunteered to run London Marathon however she didn’t have faith she was able to complete the run satisfactory. Whilst the initial consultation it came to the light that her general self-esteem and self-confidence were low. During our first meeting we had a chat about her reasons to come to the sessions, her expectations towards hypnosis and gathered the information to complete the notation. She said she volunteered to the marathon but the closer the date the more petrified she became. Even talking about the run she clearly looked anxious. She mentioned she couldn’t give the run up as she has already told her all friends that she was going to run however she was really afraid that she might break down just before the start.
The main reason for her to come to the sessions was the expectation the sessions might help her to overcome her fear. She wasn’t able to explain convincingly why she decided to run the marathon so I suggested that the main goal of our sessions would be to improve her self-esteem and confidence in order for her to decide if she really wanted to run the marathon. If in course of sessions she decided to run the further aim would be to work on her confidence and motivation to prepare her to the marathon the best and improve her chances.
We had four months until the marathon and we agreed that the 1st May is the deadline to our attempts. We have also agreed that she will participate the sessions twice a week and we will have evaluation once a month.
During the induction session she informed me that she belongs to a running club where she runs four times a week. The club members supported her in her marathon preparations, however they did not know about her concerns.
We have agreed that except our sessions X will train with her club to the run, as she has already started, and will use the self-hypnosis CDs everyday to work on her self-esteem and confidence. I have customised and recorded a set of such CDs for her and handed them to her with the detailed explanation on our second meeting. She has also agreed to keep the dairy of trainings and results in order to see the progress and build on success. She has also promised to write down the feelings she felt every time after the training. We were going to discuss the log during our sessions in order to highlight her successes and deal with her concerns.
As the induction chat have not revealed any health or mental problems and she confirmed she was not on any medications I have decided to try hypnosis to strengthen her self-esteem and confidence. Screed Assessment tool confirmed X responds well to authoritarian style compounding all modalities hence I decided to try such screed on her supplemented with relevant suggestions.
I have explained her the basic facts about hypnotherapy and made sure that all her potential anxieties about the process have been allayed. W have started the hypnotic sessions using PMR technique as X had no previous experience with hypnosis and was a bit anxious about it. PMR helped her to relax and achieve the right brain state to receive suggestions. It also created pleasant associations with hypnosis, which make the sessions easier and more efficient during the process. As X likes to run in the forest we used such visualisations to relax her deeper. I have also added the counting backwards deepener for her to make the trance even more profound. In order to do that every time she entered the favourite place (forest where she run while in hypnosis) she was walking down ten stairs and each stair was doubling her relaxation. The suggestions aimed to boost her self-esteem and confidence. Up to now both have been improved enough that X decided she is going to run the marathon. She has also confirmed that she is not afraid of it any more. However she has also decided to continue the sessions until the marathon date in order to prepare herself mentally to the competition and boost her motivation.
2.3. Explain the use of Neuro Linguistic Programming in a specific context
Neuro Linguistic Programming claims to be a system of techniques that lets people understand how does a human mind communicate and use language to learn, perform and work more effectively. The protagonists of that system say that a person can learn how to react to the problem from others that have successfully responded to a particular situation they are facing. They can see the differences in the approaches and in the outcomes. Based on it, they may make changes to their own behaviour and as a result receive the same outcome the successful models had received. As a result of the above through the use of language and body language NLP enables the practitioners to change the thoughts and feelings of themselves and others in predictable/wanted way.
Such regularity might be easily utilised in specific fields. It is obvious for business to use such techniques to train their staff. NLP says: “If one person can do something well it can be modelled and taught to others. Such statement must sound tempting for business oriented.
Business and sale use NLP strategies that focus on communication between members of staff and customers in order for them to reach a higher level of customer and employee satisfaction and increase the sale. It is easier to supply the best customer service if the staff are aware of the body language and it’s meaning. Also sale numbers can go up when the sellers able to use the language that leads the buyer to buy their product. Business and sale use also NLP’s communication techniques to facilitate the communication between the management and workers in order to share the vision while overcoming objections and obstacles. It is said that NLP may reduce anxiety and stress. Good rapport and communication skills may make the atmosphere at work better and can raise the staff’s motivation.
The principles of NLP and it’s Pillars suggest that it is effect oriented hence it’s rule of thumb say: “if you are not getting what you want you have to change what you are doing.” As a consequence NLP focuses also on mastering the ability to communicate more concisely, identify and be clear about what really matters.
NLP suggests that being able to recognise the mind state the client currently is and shifting them to the desired state can affect the negotiations and results of persuasion. It is debatable if the NLP techniques really work on that field but if they do it would be really meaningful for the business.