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2. 0 Pengenalpastian Masalah / Isu
Pengenalpastian masalah atau isu berpunca dari konflik yang merupakan elemen dalam kehidupan manusia sama ada di tempat kerja atau di luar tempat kerja, ianya tercetus disebabkan seseorang itu mempunyai kemahuan dan pengharapan yang sering bercanggah dengan kemahuan dan pengharapan orang lain samada majikan, rakan sekerja, keluarga sendiri atau individu lain yang perlu berurus dengannya. Defini konflik satu proses yang bermula apabila satu pihak menganggap satu pihak lain telah menghambar, atau akan menghambarkan satu kepentingan dirinya. (Thomas, 1976) defini ini merangkumi beberapa jenis konflik antara individu dan kumpula yang mana konflik terbahagi kepada tiga jenis iaitu :
1) Konflik diri
2) Konflik antara manusia (interpersonal)
3) Konflik pasukan
Daripada masalah ataupun isu yang timbul antara Rogers dan Janice adalah pelajar boleh Boleh mengenal pasti masalah tersebut dan memberi penjelasan masalah dengan jelas dan tepat. Dan dibawah adalah ciri-ciri pemikir baik dan lemah untuk memerhatikan naik dan lemah untuk mengatasi masalah Rogers yang tidak begitu sukakan pengurusnya Janice.
Pemikir baik Pemikir lemah
Mengkaji sesuatu masalah secara menyeluruh dan melaksanakan rancangan konstruktif bagi menyelesaikan masalah Tidak pasti bagaimana hendak mendekati masalah
Aplikasi pengetahuan mereka dalam menyelesaikan masalah sewajarnya Mempunyai tanggapan bahawa pengetahuan mereka tidak memadai.
Mengakaji dengan bersifar reflektif dan mendalam di mana perlu. Terlalu yakin idea asal betul

Menyelesaikan masalah secar sistematik dana analitikal. Berpindah daripada satu peringkat masalah kepada peringkat lain tanpa pemikiran dan perancangan yang menyeluruh.
Mempunyai kepercayaan dan keyakinan kepada kuasa penaklukan mereka dan tahap keyakinan. Tiada keyakinan terhadap kuasa penaklukan dan kurang yakin.
Bertekad dan fokus sepanjang tempoh penyelesaian measalah. Kurang sikap serius dan mengambil sesuatu perkara dengan mudah dan sambil lewa.
Terbuka kepada pelbagai kemungkinan dan hasil Tidak memikirkan jalan alternatif kepada penyelesaian

Antara masalah yang dihadapi oleh Rogers yang telah bekerja di Syarikat GHJ selama hampir 15 tahun. Adalah Rogers tidak begitu sukakan pengurusnya Janice dan Rogers berfikir sama ada untuk terus bekerja atau berhenti kerja.
i. Tidak sukakan pengurus yang baru diambil bekerja di jabatannya
Konflik adalah satu elemen dalam kehidupan manusia, yang sentiasa dihadapi oleh manusia dalam kes ini Rogers dan pengurusnya Janice yang mana dia tidak berapa menyukai pengurusnya. Ianya tercetus kerana pengurusnya yang mempunyai kemahuan dan pengharapan yang mungkin banyak bercanggah dengan pekerja yang berurusan denganya. Antara konflik yang dihadapi oleh Rogers adalah dia tidak bersetuju dengan sesuatu arahan ataupun cara pengurusnya.

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ii. Sikap Pengurus baru yang sangat keras kepala
sikap janice yang sangat keras kepala yang mana sikap ini kemungkinan menjurus pengurus ini tidak dapat menerima pendapat dan pandangan pekerja yang menyebabkan pekerja susah untuk berurusan dan melaksanakan sesuatu kerja. Ini merupakan Konflik Diri ini bersifat persendirian yang mana Janice perlu membuat keputusan yang melibatkan banyak alternatif, antara alternatif yang dimaksudkan adalah pengurus terpaksa memilih alternatif-alternaif yang bersesuaian dan mempunyai kesan negatif antara pengurus dan pekerja.

iii. Pengurus tidak sopan ketika membuat permintaan dari orang bawahannya.
Sikap pengurus yang tidak menghormati hak pekerja tidak sopan dalam melaksanakan sesuatu tugasan dengan pekerja dan sikap ini menyebabkan pekerja menjadi stress dan tidak bersemanagt dalam melakukan kerja kesan daripada ini kerja yang dilaksanakan tidak berkualiti. Ini merupakan Konflik Antara Manusia (Interpersonal) berlaku di mana terdapatnya komunikasi ataupun bekerja bersama untuk mencapai matlamat yang sama tetapi berlainan peranan, tanggungjawab dan keperluan.

iv. Apabila Pengurus tidak berpuas hati dia akan meledak dengan kemarahan di hadapan umum.
pengurus tidak profesional dan bermeosi ketika mengarah pekerja menyebabkan pekerja tidak selesa dan berpandangan negatif terhadap majikan dan menyebabkan pekerja tidak dapat menghormati majikan dalam melaksanakan kerja. Konflik yang dihadapi dalam organisasi adalah koordinasi dan kawalan iaitu pekerja yang berbeza peranan tetapi perlu mengharapkan pertolongan atau perkhidmatan antara mereka. Dan komuniskasi yang tidak kurang jelas, matlamat, kepercayaan yang rendah antara penyelia pekerja atau antara bahagian.

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2. How does Herman Melville’s “Moby-Dick” help to clarify one or more of central themes we have discussed in this course?

Herman Melville’s “Moby-Dick” or “The Whale” that was published in London in 1851 appeared in the same socio-economic, political and cultural context in America as described in the first question. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed in 1848 presents the pattern of expansion representative of the century, the political sphere was occupied by personalities with ideologies ranging from Jefferson’s to Jackson’s, and the Civil War was approaching when Melville was in process of drafting “Moby Dick”. Dedicated to Nathaniel Hawthorne, the author of “The Scarlet Letter”, this book is considered to be one of the best American literary works, although it was widely overlooked at its time. The novel takes place in a world which is constructed through symbols and metaphors and it echoes an eclectic variety of intertextual links. Notably, “Moby Dick” comprises Biblical names and references, such as the Book of Job, while providing encyclopedic explanations of whaling lore along an adventurous story that serves as a meditation on the core existential questions. “Moby Dick” is also a reflection on autobiographical elements since Herman Melville himself was a whaler. In a way, its non-linear narration and interplay between various genres foresee the upcoming literary experiments. Now, Herman Melville’s work is significant not only as a literary landmark but in a less exaggerated form as efforts of “literatus”, as defined by Whitman, to embody the American spirit and to find a tone of its own.
Herman Melville starts building the plot with Ishmael who introduces himself as a narrator. After a trip to New Bedford where he meets a strange looking but, seemingly, a kind spirited man from the South Pacific called Queequeg, they decide to find work together in the whaling industry. Having come across a ship Pequod led by a one-legged Captain Ahab, Ishmael and Queequeg join its diverse crew and hit the road. Soon they find out about Moby Dick, the great whale that epitomizes evil who deprived the captain of his leg and learn Ahab’s intentions to kill him. The man to do it is offered a prize and so a hunt begins as more and more whales are spotted when moving southwards. In the process, a crew of men led by Fedallah that constitutes Ahab’s personal harpoon previously unknown for the narrator emerges. Characterized by skills and prophetic abilities, they seem to be a good asset in a search of Moby Dick. As the voyage proceeds, Pequod comes across another ship carrying a prophet Gabriel who tells destiny of those who pose a potential danger to Moby Dick. In fact, his predictions seemed to make sense since one of the harpooners who had hunted down the other whales in search of Moby Dick was saved from drowning thanks to Queequeg. Shortly after, Queequeg gets sick and due to predicted death has a coffin made for him which later becomes a life preserver of the ship. Soon, Ahab himself hears a prophecy of his death that makes him assume it will happen in the land. Yet, when a typhoon hits a ship, some take it as a bad sign seeing murdering Ahab whose willingness to destroy Moby Dick intensifies as a potential salvation. As this desire grows, Pequod’s Prophetic figure, the crew member Pip, who became so after having been left in the middle of the ocean, makes Ahab’s regular companion. To tension grows when Pequod comes across more whaling ships destroyed by their confrontations with Moby Dick. When Ahab finally spots it as well, days-long sisyphic struggle follows to hunt it down. Finally, Moby Dick sinks the Pequod killing everyone but Ishmael who is saved when spotted floating in Queequeg’s coffin by another ship looking for its own lost crew members after a confrontation with a Moby Dick.
Although the reader experiences the story articulated by Ishmael, he does not have a crucial role in a way the novel develops. Yet, he provides with his knowledge on whaling, art, literature and other subjects creating an image of Rennaisancian man knowledge spans a number of various areas. This intellect of his provides the author with a voice from the Pequod’s crew to tell the story which likely would not be accessible from the other characters. Then, Ishmael’s tattooed friend Queequeg in search of adventure whom he meet at the very beginning embodies characteristics of various cultures and diversity. Parallels can be drawn between the influx of immigration experienced by the United States at that time and the crew of the ship which is a bounded space with a diversity within that everyone has to deal with. Besides Queequeg, other characters show this idea as well. While Fedallah represents an “Oriental” character strengthened through his “exotic” appearance, Tashtego is a Native American harpooner portrayed as a “noble savage”, and Pip is an African-American character who gains importance after the emergence of his prophecies which bring him closer to Ahab. The latter seeks to destroy the whale in an obsessive and tend to act as a despot but his charisma helps persuade the crew of his aspiration do find Moby Dick.
Moby Dick, on the contrary, is not really a character but rather a figure that represents a certain uncontrollable force that does not depend on human beings. Its thoughts or motivations are unavailable for the reader and, thus, it strikes as an all-powerful creature which is bigger than Ahab’s or other Captain’s ambitions or plans. Also, it reminds of the prior symbolism of a whale, such as in “Leviathan” by Thomas Hobbes or Cetus in Greek mythology. Ishmael’s descriptions depict how whales mimic the environment, how they are rarely available for human observation and never appear from the sea as a whole. It describes the infinite that Moby Dick represents – it is not available for human knowledge but it is always there, underneath the surface acting as this all-driving inescapable force which is both appealing and frightening because of its greatness.
At the same time, whaling was an exploitive activity driving these animals to near extinction when Melville was gaining this experience and writing his novel and, in parallel, many other activities moving America forward were too. Whaling represented in “Moby Dick” could be linked to gold mining, as it was also observed in Royce’s works about California, writing his novel and so was the territorial expansion liked to the manifest destiny or unfair trade with Native Americans of which there are also hints in Royce’s “California”. In fact, Ahab’s desire to chase after the whale is revealing on its own. The reason why he got to this activity, to begin with, was to search for profit made out of oil. When he loses his leg, Captain Ahab is ready to go wherever it might take him to seek revenge. Even when he is warned that there are forces that go beyond the human capabilities, he insists on the necessity of destroying the great white sperm whale without taking hindsight. Yet, this narcissistic and rather stubborn stance does not only destroy the Captain but also all crew of his as well. Meanwhile, Ahab’s crew members accepting and traveling with him are submissive to his authority and expose their own selves to risk while counting on his definition of Moby Dick as the great evil. Ahab does not doubt in his capacity, contrary to three Pequod´s friends Starbuck, Stubb, and Flask whose religiosity deters them from seeing themselves as able to tame higher forces and, contrary to Ahab, they embody deterministic thinking certain to Christian thought which claims that everything happens for a reason and, therefore, there is little on can go to alter it.
“Moby Dick” also helps to highlight and challenge the ideas of transcendentalism, truly 19th-century American philosophical movement, as it appears in Whitman’s, Thoreau’s or Emerson’s works. In short, transcendentalism sees an individual as good as such but deprived of this purity by corrupt institutions and society. Transcendentalists believed in the existence of truth that stretches beyond our comprehension, they evoked the motives of nature, inner spirituality, and self-reliance and derived from the assumption of the inherent goodness of people. In these terms, while Ahab demonstrates a desire to be himself unleashing his destructive character and conflicting with transcendentalist ideas, Ishmael, on the contrary, seems to embody the idea of self-reliance and his perception of nature pertains to divinity, he is struggling to reconcile his passion of facts about it with its uncomprehensive essence. Yet, Melville is more pessimistic about the nature of an individual and with an example of Ahab envisions potential dangers of one person having an unlimited belief in himself. Also, nature in “Moby Dick” is not as uplifting and refreshing as, say, in Thoreau’s or Emerson’s texts. On the contrary, for Melville, the natural world demonstrates violent and it frightens the human beings.
Finally, not only can Moby Dick be interpreted in the context of the 19th and earlier centuries, but its relevance transforms with time adapting to socio-economic, cultural and political contexts of the moment. The self-centered manner in which Ahab tells the Pequod’s crew of his mission reminds of Trump’s tone as well. He also tells a story of a country in danger and on the verge of humiliation that needs to mobilize and direct its Pequod towards the destruction of this evil – be it the immigrants, the other nations of religions embodying this “whale”. And even more parallels can be found in the recent history. Remember G.W.Bush’s combat with the “whale” which brought his as far as to Afghanistan in a reactionary chase of terror. Again, the end of this voyage was similar to that of Ahab being more destructive than successful. Indeed, it looks that Herman Melville’s “Moby Dick” potential is inexhaustible and it does not only clarify themes we have discussed in this particular course but could equally serve in the others ranging widely from literary theory, cultural studies to political science.

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2.3 service quality the emergence of quality of service as a top preference in several corporate entities is primarily because of the globalization of world trade and the competitive pressure brought about by the elevating demands of consumers who want better goods and services. it ensures that the voice of the customer is always coincided by the voice of the processes khoshafian s. 2016 since the service quality is very vital in surviving and in profit making of an organization it affects both customers satisfaction and motivation whether after shopping positively or before shopping positively hussain r. al nasser a. hussain y. k. 2015 service quality can have many different meanings in different contexts. for example bansal h. s. taylor s. 2015? defined service quality as the consumers overall effect of the relative inferiority or superiority of the organization and its services. While theodorakis n. d. kaplanidou k. karabaxoglou i. 2015 defined perceived service quality as a universal judgment or attitude relating to the excellence of a service. in their efforts to reach a model for service quality hussain r. al nasser a. hussain y. k. 2015 identified 5 determinants of service quality used by customers to build their own perceptions which are: reliability responsiveness empathy assurance and tangibles. 2.4 customer satisfaction satisfaction is a psychological outcome emerging from an experience a definition by heino j. 2015 also satisfaction can be defined as an overall customer attitude towards a service provider or an emotional reaction to the difference between what customers anticipate and what they receive lalaram j. j. s. cassim n. karodia a. m. 2016 another definition was given by wto 1985 as follows customer satisfaction is a psychological concept that includes the feeling of well-being and a pleasure that results from obtaining what one hopes for and expects from an interesting product/service. 2.5 relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction nagle t. t. müller g. 2017 stated that the company survives only when it has customers and grows only when it can retain them and attract new ones therefore it should be structured and managed around these concepts. customers always stay with those companies that are special for them and they become devoted to the brands that make them feel special. on the other hand kerzner h. kerzner h. r. 2017 mentioned that changes in the business environment and in the market place have changed customer behavior. if organizations fail to treat customer well and give them what they want they will leave. current and even perceived customers are today faced with an unprecedented range of choices not only choices of what to buy but where to buy. it is virtually impossible for a company to succeed today if its products/services are inferior. while lasserre p. 2017 said that during the 1980s customer awareness led to a higher degree of customer sovereignty and organizations could no longer neglect customer needs. the differentiator that provided a competitive advantage was the quality of service. accordingly one main hypotheses and five sub-hypotheses are proposed: h3: there is a direct relaionship between service quality and customers satisfaction. h31: there is a direct correlation between responsiveness as a service quality dimension and customers satisfaction. h32: there is a direct correlation between assurance as a service quality dimension and customers satisfaction. h33: there is a direct correlation between tangibles as a service quality dimension and customers satisfaction. h34: there is a direct correlation between empathy as a service quality dimension and customers satisfaction. h35: there is a direct correlation between reliability as a service quality dimension and customers satisfaction. summary the first issue of the research was to determine the performance drivers that have a positive influence on ports performance taking quality of service and customer satisfaction as a performance indicators. the second objective was to develop a theoretical framework that can be utilized as a guide for ports managers to establish and maintain a superior quality of service to carry out this stage of the research the key csfs service quality and customers satisfaction have been extensively investigated through an intensive literature review. based upon them a conceptual model of csfs implementation in relation with port performance utilizing service quality customers satisfaction as a performance indicators was proposed 3 main hypotheses and 25 sub-hypotheses were generated.