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2.1.1 Paper 1

Paper Title: The Social Relationship based Adaptive Multi-Spray-and-Wait Routing Algorithm for Disruption Tolerant Network.

Author Detail: Jianfeng Guan, Qi Chu, Ilsun You

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Publication: Hindawi (2017)

Description: Different from traditional routing which is based on end to end path from source to destination, DTN use store carry forward mechanism. In this paper proposed a social relationship based spray and wait routing to improve performance by considering buffer management and social parameters. In proposed schema timeout detection mechanism is used to solve blind spot problem and buffer management for reduce the overhead. As per its functionality social parameters is used for predict path. By comparison with traditional algorithms, it shows that proposed algorithm improve message delivery ratio, reduce the overhead and decrease the buffer time.

2.1.2 Paper 2

Paper Title: Bubble Rap: Social based forwarding in Delay Tolerant Networks

Author Detail: Pan Hui, Jon Crocroft, Eiko Yoneki

Publication: IEEE (Nov-2011)

Description: In this paper introduced bubble rape: Social based forwarding in delay tolerant network, for designing this hybrid algorithm, centrality and community detection method called K-CLIQUE community detection is used. As per simulation result bubble is designed to work better with a hierarchical community structure. It improves the parameter no of message copies, no of hops, time to live, delivery ratio, delivery cost.
2.1.3 Paper 3

Paper Title: Give2Get: Forwarding in Social Mobile Wireless Network of Selfish Individuals.

Author Detail: Alessandro Mei, Julinda Stefa

Publication: International Conference on Distributed Computing System. (2010)

Description: In this paper present message forwarding schema in social mobile wireless network in assuming that all nodes in the network is selfish. Give to get forwarding consists three phases: Message generation, message relays and testing. Message generation executes when one node have message to send pass to some other node in the network. After message generated source node transfer the message to the nodes its meet. When the receiver node receive message and pass to the proof of sending to the sender.Affter the receiving proof every time node have to show the proof and node fails ,the proof of misbehaving is broadcast. Only when two proofs are collected by node, message can be discarded by node’s memory. Proposed algorithm good in terms of message delay, success rate and cost.

2.1.4 Paper 4

Paper Title: Distributed Community Detection in Delay Tolerant Networks

Author Detail: Pan Hui, Eiko Yoneki, Shu-Yan Chan, Jon Crow croft

Publication:

Description: In this paper, proposed three distributed community detection algorithm with different level of computational complexity and resources requirements. The impact of the detected communities on the PSN forwarding efficiency band found it to be several times more cost effective than flooding or using randomly generated groups with same size and also discovered that the communities detected by the distributed algorithm can satisfactorily approximate the centralized algorithm which required the whole network topology.

2.1.5 Paper 5

Paper Title: Mobility based routing algorithm in delay tolerant network.

Author Detail: Marcin Kawecki, Radoslaw Olgierd Schoeneich

Publication: Springer (2016)

Description: This paper presents a routing algorithm based on the use of mobility of nodes in delay tolerant network.DTN are characterized by temporary or permanent lack of continuous path between the source and destination node. The communication is done by transferring the message by intermediate nodes based on store carry forward paradigm. Routing protocol is based on the ability to use information about node mobility and their contacts. Author assume that greater mobility of the nodes results in higher number of contacts with other nodes and higher probability in the message delivery to the destination. Proposed algorithm was simulated using one simulator.

2.1.6 Paper 6

Paper Title : Trust aware watchdog mechanism to detect selfish node in manet.

Author Detail: Resmi C, Sindhu S.

Publication: International journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering (2016).

Description: In this paper, propose a new framework which uses a trust based schema and watchdog to detect selfish node. Also alert model is implemented in which node which are not ready to cooperate can send warning message to adjust nodes. Trust relationship must be set up between every pairs of nodes.

2.1.7 Paper 7

Paper Title : Detecting Selfish Nodes using a Collaborative Contact based watchdog.

Author Detail: Husna Taj, Kampe Shilpa

Publication: International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research (2016).

Description: In this paper, detection selfish node using a collaborative contact based watchdog. Data transmission in the network is based on the behavior of node. If node can cooperative in nature than they send the packet but uncooperative nature of nodes degrades the performance of the network. For detecting selfish node COCOWA model is introduced which use markov chain model to evaluate detection time. This technique will reduce the time of detecting selfish node as well as reduce the effect of malicious node.

2.1.8 Paper 8

Paper Title: Skeleton Construction in Mobile Social Network: Algorithms and Applications.

Author Detail: Zongqing Lu, Xiao Sun, Yonggang Wen, Guohong Cao.

Publication: IEEE (2012)

Description: Proposed skeleton in mobile social network. Skeleton is mainly formed for predicting node contacts and managing the node. Skeleton is based on the social property of nodes like best friends, rank etc. Skeleton is tree structure which makes the communication more reliable. As per simulation result skeleton gives more efficient results than existing community based algorithm.

2.1.9 Paper 9

Paper Title: Improved collaborative watchdog system for detection of selfish node in Manet.

Author Detail: Momin Kashif M, Prof.V.S.Kadam.

Publication: International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (2015)

Description: In this proposed improved collaborative watchdog system for detecting selfish node in manet.Selfish node degrades the performance of the network by not taking part in the communication system for consume their resources. So it is very important to detect selfish node in the network and remove it from the system. In this paper proposed a method to detect the selfish node based on trust and reputation of every node. For reputation using Bayesian estimation .Baye’s theorem is as follows:
P(?i/y)=p(y/?i)p(?i)
?_(i=1)^n?p(y/?i)p(?i)
As per result, this schema is highly robust, efficient and improve performance of the mechanism.

2.1.10 Paper 10

Paper Title : Count on me:reliable broadcast and efficient routing in DTN through ss.

Author Detail: Alessandro Mei,Natascia Piroso,Julinda Stefa
Publication: ELSEVIER,2016
Description: In this paper, present COM, a reliable broadcasting mechanism for networks where nodes cannot use long-range communication to complete missing links. COM is based on the Social Skeleton, which is strongly connected graph based on social property of the network. Computed in an efficient and distributed way.COM exploits the Social Skeleton to guarantee reachability of 100% of nodes with the lowest number of long communications.

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2)

2.1.A definition of glycaemic index (GI) and the difference between ‘glycaemic index’ and ‘glycaemic load.’
The Glycaemic index is a ranking of carbohydrates found in foods according to how they affect your blood glucose levels.
The Glycemic Load is a ranking of the carbohydrates according to the GI and the amount of carbohydrates found in food. and quality of carbohydrates and is not just a ranking of carbohydrates based on how they affect your blood glucose levels like the Glycaemic Index. The Glycaemic load is defined by the amount of carbohydrates in a portion of food multiplied by the GI value divided by 100.
Ref: https://www.gisymbol.com/about-glycemic-index/

2.2.How to interpret the G.I. rating scale
A low GI has a value of 55 or less. A medium/moderate GI value is 56-69.A high GI value is 70 or more.

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2.3. What is insulin?
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that enables your body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates in the food you consumed for energy or to store glucose for future usage.
2.4 What is the ideal blood glucose level in human beings and why is it considered ideal?
Blood glucose levels change throughout the day however for a person without diabetes, a fasting blood sugar on awakening should be under 100 mg/dl. Before-meals a normal glucose levels are 70–99 mg/dl and up to 140mg/dl two hours after eating.A person will have diabetes when the fasting blood glucose is level is at 126mg/dl or above.The safe blood sugar level is between 70 to 105mg/dl ensuring that you still have the right amount of energy but your blood glucose levels re never too low or to high.

2.5 State the classification of foods according to the G.I. rating scale and give 10 examples of foods for each of the 3 groups. Provide the G.I. ratings for each example

GI RATING SCALE NAME OF FOOD GI RANKING
LOW GI Sweet corn,on the cob,boiled 48
Sweet potato,baked 46
Carrots,peeled,boiled 41
Tomato,canned 45
Lentil,canned 44
Long grain rice,white,Mahatma,boiled 50
Soba noodles,instant,served in soup 46
Gluten-free Muesli 39
Oat bran,raw,unprocessed 55
Pumpernickel bread 50

GI RATING SCALE Food GI Rating
Medium GI Lemon squash soft drink 58
Whole-grain rye bread 58
Puffed buckwheat 65
Life,Quaker Oats 66
Polenta(cornmeal),boiled 68
Ryvita Currant Crispbread 66
Condensed milk,sweetened,full fat 61
Noodles,dried rice,boiled 61
Sugar,white 68
Golden syrup 63

GI RATING SCALE FOOD GI RATING
HIGH GI Gatorade 78
Swede (rutabaga) 72
Radishes,red 75
Pumpkin ,boiled 75
Potato,baked,without skin 85
Glucose Syrup 100
Brown Pelde rice,boiled 76
Corn pasta,gluten-free,boiled 78
Kumara,boiled 77
Rice cracker,plain 91

2.6. Explain the effects on the body of eating foods from each of the 3 categories according to the G.I. rating scale.
Foods with a High GI can cause a sudden rise in glucose levels due to this the body will pancreas will produce insulin. The high amount of insulin produced causes glucose levels in the blood to suddenly decrease and this create the feeling of hunger even if you weren’t hungry before. Food with a Low GI are good and beneficial to your health as Low GI reduces the rish of chronic disease.

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2. HOW DERIVATIVES CAN BE USED FOR HEDGING RISKS.

Hedging with Options Contracts
Option contract is an agreement that give a holder the right to purchase or sell currency for an agreed price and at a certain amount of currency at a specified time in the future. However, the option holder is not obligated to exercise the contract. Therefore, the holder has to pay premium to the broker, a firm or individual who carry out the orders to buy or sell currency option contracts on the behalf of holder (Pike & Neale, 2009)
Classification of option contract according to (Bodie & Kane & Marcus, 1999)
Call option, this gives the holder the right to buy a certain quantity of currency at the exercise/strike price in a specified period of time.

Put option, this gives the holder the right to sell a certain quantity of currency at the exercise/strike price in a specified period of time.
Two types of option contract basing on the terms on exercise in the contract according to (Bodie & Kane & Marcus, 1999)
European style options, this allow the holders to exercise the option only on the expiration date.
American style options, this allow the holders to exercise the contract at any time up to the expiration date.

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Illustration1.
The Group 6 Company October 30 call option is quoted at TZS 500/-, the Group 6 Company October 30 put option is quoted at TZS 1,500/-, while the Group 6 Company spot price is quoted at TZS 28,000/-. The call option is said to be out of the money since its immediate exercise (if possible) has no value. Conversely, the put option is in the money. Suppose the Group 6 Company spot price rises to TZS 31,000/- on October 16, which is the option maturity date. Then, the call holder is better of exercising his right and making a profit of TZS 1,000/-. The call expires in the money, while the put expires out of the money.

According to (Nguyen, 2012), there are two parties engaged in the option contract which are option holder and option writer.

Figure1. Participants in option contract
Option holder/option buyer/option taker is the party which grants another one the option but not an obligation to do or not to do something. In addition, this party has a right to choose to purchase or sell currency at specified price within a certain period of time.

Option writer/option seller/ option granter is the party who is obliged to fulfill that choice in accordance with the terms of contractual option.
Premium is the non-refundable cost for which holder is required to pay to gain the possession of option at the outset regardless of whether option will be exercised or not (Wilmott, 2000).

Hedging with Forward Contracts
Bodie & Kane & Marcus (1999) defined forward contract as a non-standardized contract entered by two parties or more with the intention of exchanging one currency for another at an agreed rate and at a certain quantity on a specified future date. According to (Wilmott, 2000, p 26) in forward contract, strike price is the rate on which one currency is based to be converted to another currency as the contract is exercised. The certain date at which the contract is due to be exercised is called expiration date and also the action to perform the obligation to deliver currency under the terms of contract is called exercise.
Illustration.2
Assume that a US construction company, Group 6 ltd just won a contract to build a stretch of road in Tanzania. The contract is signed for TZS 10,000,000 and would be paid for after the completion of the work. This amount is consistent with Group 6 ltd minimum revenue of TZS 1,000,000 at the exchange rate of $0.10 per TZS. However, since the exchange rate could fluctuate and end with a possible depreciation of TZS, Group 6 ltd enters into a forward agreement with CRDB to fix the exchange rate.

Hedging with Futures Contracts
Future contract is a standardized contractual agreement in which two parties promise to exchange one currency for another at a pre-determined rate and at a certain quantity on a specified future date (Arnold, 2010).

Illustration3.

As for hedging with futures, if the risk is an appreciation of value one needs to buy futures and if the risk is depreciation then one needs to sell futures. Let’s assume accordingly that Group 6 ltd sold Rupee futures at the rate RM0.10 per Rupee. Hence the size of the contract is RM1, 000,000. Now say that Rupee depreciates to RM0.07 per Rupee – the very thing Group 6 ltd was afraid of. Group 6 ltd would then close the futures contract by buying back the contract at this new rate.
Hedgers are parties at risk with an underlying asset and they decide to take out (buy or sell) derivative instruments to offset their risks. There are 2 hedge positions which are;
Long hedge
This is maintained by the party who commits to purchasing the currency in the future. This is because this party is currently not holding any contractual currency and expects to possess it sometime in the future. Since the party is seen to be short on the cash position therefore, the party wishes to lock in purchase prices and use a long hedge, which reduces the risk of a short position (Jones, 2002).

Short hedge
This is maintained by the party who commit to selling the currency in the future. This is because the party is currently holding the contractual currency. Since the party is seen to be long on the cash position so the party needs to protect themselves against a decrease in prices. Hence, a short hedge mitigate the risk taken in a long position (Hull, 2011)
Figure2. Hedge positions in future or forward contracts (Nguyan, 2012).Hedging with Swaps
Currency swap is the agreement between two parties to swap both the periodic interest payments and principal denominated in one currency into another currency at the agreed upon rate of exchange for the specific period of time. However, on the maturity date, each party is required to return the other the swapped principal sum (Watson ; Head, 2010).

Illustration4.
A company agrees to pay its bank semi- annual interest over 20 years, based on a fixed nominal interest rate of 5.5% (per year), and to receive interest payments based on a floating interest rate, say, the 6 month LIBOR rate. Both interest payments assume a principal amount of TZS 1 million. No payment is exchanged up front. Several swaps are traded over the counter, namely, interest rate swaps, currency swaps, equity swaps, and the more recently introduced and controversial credit default swaps. There are several combinations of derivative contracts, such as options on swaps or swaptions, options on futures contracts, and options embedded in bonds, among others.

3. ARGUMENT FOR AND AGAINST THESE OF DERIVATIVES IN HEDGING RISK.
Arguments for (Benefits):
Derivatives help to gain the certainty concerning a future outcome
Under the strong fluctuating currency market, neither of parties is able to predict accurately what actual exchange rate in the future will be. Therefore derivatives for example forward contract assists in the protection of unfavorable exchange rate movement which causes fluctuation that can lead to loss of large amounts of money in firms from the decrease in over sale price or from the sudden rise in imported material cost (Stephens, 2003).

Derivatives allow firms to set accurate budget and stick to the financial plan
This is because the exact values of future transaction are calculated. This also means that derivatives enable firms to focus on their business activities in order to reap the huge profit instead of wasting time, capital and resources on keeping a constant track of fluctuation of exchange rate (Stephens, 2003).
Arguments against:
Unable to withdraw from the contract
Once the two parties enter the derivative contracts for example forward contract, they are legally obliged to carry it out up to the maturity date even if the business circumstance changes. However, (Stephens, 2003) argue that if one party seeks to withdraw from the contract will certainly suffer from the relatively high cost of cancellation. This means that when it comes to the situation in which the exchange rate in the market moves against one party’s interest, the firm is not allowed to withdraw from its contracted position in order to grab profit from such a profitable movement (Watson & Head, 2010).

High degree of credit risk arising from two sources
Firstly, there is no initial cost or deposit requirement when undertaking the contracts. Secondly, the gains and losses between two parties are figured out at the time the contract becomes mature and related currency are delivered at the pre-determined price. Consequently, it is quite an inducement to the party going to suffer from the loss, or to the party which no longer need to trade the contractual currency, to default on the forward contract (Hutchninson & Thornes, 1995).

REFERENCES
Pike, R. & Neale , B. (2009). “Corporate Finance and Investment : Decisions and Strategies”.6th ed. FT Prentice Hall Financial Times.

Hutchinson, R. & Thornes , S. ( 1995 ). “Corporate Finance : Principles of investment , financing and valuation ” . Robert Stanley Publishers Ltd .Bodie & Kane & Marcus. ( 1999) . “Investments”.4th ed. Irwin / McGraw Hill
Arnold , G . (2010) .”The financial times guide to investing” . 2nd ed. Financial times Prentice Hall Pearson.

Stephens , J. (2003). “Managing currency risk : Using Financial derivatives”. The institute of international auditors UK and Ireland. University Edition .Hull, J. (2011) . “Options, Futures, And other derivatives” . 8th ed . Pearson.

Watson, D. & Head , A. (2010). “Corporate finance : Principle & Practice”. 5th ed. Prentice Hall Financial Times.Wilmott , P. ( 2000 ). “Derivatives :The theory and Practice of Financial Engineering”. University Edition
Jones , C. (2002). “Investment Analysis and Management”.8th ed. North Caroline StateUniversity.Arnold , G . (2010) .”The financial times guide to investing” . 2nd ed. Financial timesPrentice Hall Pearson.