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1. In your own words, summarize the central premise of the related article and the connection between them.
The connection between the two articles is that both Amazon and Gap are trying to continue a growing business. They both want to market more consumers to visit amazon site for an ongoing shopping experiences for clients, and Gap trying to entice more shoppers to come into their retail stores. Being that Amazon is open to new merchant’s world wide of all merchandise sale, they are also opening opportunities for brand name retailers. Amazon is always trying to gain more merchants to sell and more visitors to become clients. As in Gap because their sales have been going down, they are open to other ways in bringing up their sales and so they have thought about selling their line in Amazon to extend their sales further.
2. What are the key metrics used to evaluate a retailer’s performance? Summarize Gap’s recent performance on those metrics.
The key metrics used to evaluate a retailer’s performance is the number of clients visiting the store, average sales, net revenue and financial statement. Depending on the amount of clientele at a retailer’s site or physical stores would let us know whether the store is productive or not. For Gap, researcher found that Gap’s brand has lost their importance with recent millennials and the organizations of other clothing stores is overloading the attention toward Gap. At the end of the day, the client visits at Gap has become less for millennials between the ages of twenty to thirty years old which have discovered other fashionable stores. The substitutes of Gap items are stores like American Eagle, H&M, Banana Republic, and so on. An actual sale means how much cash or credit clients spend at the checkout.
3. What reasons would you use to support Gap selling its products on Amazon?
My reasons of why I would use to support Gap selling its products on Amazon is because Gap revenues has declined yearly rate of 5% and gross margin has also declined. Although Amazon may boost sales for Gap, but the major problem would be Amazon using their content for their own benefit. On the positive note Gap is still open to discovering options because of its declining business. So, being that Amazon is the largest e-commerce site in the U.S. with the top transaction in retail sales to produce progressively. Listing its merchandise products on Amazon could up sale and bring much more growth for Gap.
4. What reasons would you use to oppose Gap selling its products on Amazon?
There are few reasons why I would oppose Gap selling its products on Amazon. First reason would be how retailers would lose total control of the shopper experience. Secondly sellers may not have control of consumer reach nor customer data. Even though many shoppers visit Amazon and can help Gap gross up their sales, Gap would lose on valuable shopper data and share revenue. Amazon is the type of business that only cares about adding more apparel shoppers to its site to continue their own growth in the e-commerce system.
5. If Gap were to decide to sell its products on Amazon, what are 2-3 tactics it could use to leverage its Amazon partnership to drive consumer traffic to its physical stores?
If Gap were to decide to sell its products on Amazon, one of their tactics that could use to leverage its Amazon partnership to drive consumer traffic to its physical stores would be first to go through customer question and answer section in the Amazon page. Looking through customer question and answer would give Gap an idea what style is on demand from clients. Having a social media available to advertise Gap new fashion when answering customer question and answer can help bring forth more clients to appear in person in the stores, especially if they want the item at the very moment rather waiting for the shipping date. Secondly would be to polish Amazon product listing, because it only takes a few seconds to whether to buy a product by prioritizing Gap product listing, to optimization. Product optimization is eliminating any barriers to understanding and giving Gap customers what they want, when they want it, in a format they can understand. And lastly, best of all is adding sponsored product ads, Amazon has a platform that allows merchants to get exposure for Gap products on Amazon.
6. In your own words, explain what Amazon Web Services is.
An Amazon Web Services is a protected cloud service area platform. Amazon Web Services offers processing control, database stockpiling, content transportation and other usefulness to enable organizations to scale and develop. Also, can investigate how a large number of clients are at present utilizing AWS cloud items and answers for manufacture complex applications with expanded adaptability, flexibility and firm quality.

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1.8 Theoretical framework
There has been a propagation of study on cultural conflicts. Numerous social science models have been put forward to enlighten the incidence of cultural conflicts. This research will make use of two theories; structural functionalism theory and greed versus grievance theory. The main proponents of greed versus grievance theory include Anke Hoeffler and Paul Collier. Structural functionalism’s main proponents include Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) and Talcott Parsons (1902-1979).
Structural-functionalism as a theory focuses on society as an object in which all the components worked together, accommodatingly and cohesively for the benefit of the overall society. Structural functionalists suggest that society is a system that encompassed social structures, organisations, or roles. To them, society is like an organism and is made up of structures called social institutions. The functionalists emphasized the functions within the structure of the main parts of society and the contributions of each for the overall society’s survival and growth. These institutions were specially structured so that they performed diverse functions on behalf of society. This theory attempts to provide an explanation on how human society is organized and what each of the various social institutions does in order for society to continue existing. Structural functionalism theory will be used to explain the role played by the Kipsigis and Kisii social institutions in fuelling cross-border conflicts.
According to Mafeje, the result of being unified and interdependent, one organ affected the others and ultimately the whole. The whole also affected one or all the communal organisations. The strength of this theory is that it emphasizes the necessity of components within society. All components of society have functions in order to survive for example, the age-set system among the Kipsigis and Kisii had traditionally served for many years to ensure that there was always a standing army which protected the community during war, extended territorial boundaries, and carried out raids for more livestock among others. Traditionally, religious institutions also had a cultural function among both the Kipsigis and the Kisii. For example, the institutions of the prophets, medicine men, council of elders, and diviners had cultural functions during periods of peace and periods of war.
According to Hirshleifer, greed and grievance theories’ focus move from the cohesion emphasis of structural functionalism and focuses more on the inevitable conflict within society. This theory show how conflict is manifested in activities that have greed orientation among the Kipsigis and Kisii communities. Consequences of greed are grievances which in most cases lead to misunderstandings. The theory argues that the worriers in conflicts are motivated by a desire to better their situation and perform an informal cost-benefit analysis in examining if the rewards of joining the conflict are greater than not joining.
Hirshleifer further argues that grievance stands for the argument that people go into conflict over issues of identity such as ethnicity, religion, social and class, and not necessarily over economies. In this theory, conflicts are caused by the worriers’ desire for self-enrichment such as economic gain through the control of goods and resources or by increased power within a given community. Resources that can be raided are sources of conflicts. The principle assumption underlying this theory is that all members in society do not have the same values, interest or expectations. These varied according to one’s position, privileges, ability, class and wealth. These would lead to the struggle over scarce but valuable resources and opportunities which result in divisions in communities and eventually manifest themselves in conflicts. Greed versus grievance theory directly guides the cross-border conflicts of the Kipsigis and Kisii of Sotik-Borabu in Bomet and Nyamira sub-counties respectively. The theory shows that the raiders in the case of cattle rustling- a major source of conflicts are more motivated to control resources. Greed versus grievance theory will give the researcher an opportunity to assess the role played by greed for resources such as land, cattle and grazing fields in the Kipsigis-Gusii cross-border conflicts.
Cattle raiding are a cultural practice in both communities. This study will assess how this culture serves to bring about cross-border conflicts. The research will examine resources in both Kipsigis and Gusii land in the area and apply the greed versus grievance theory to analyze the roles these resources repeatedly play in the Kipsigis-Gusii cultural conflicts. Other community structures that will be studied in relation to the cross-border conflicts included socio-political system and socio-economic systems.
The theories will thus be used in explaining how greed by a number of individuals/ institutions including the socio-political institutions have led to cross-border conflicts in the area by creating grievances on the opposing communities through actions like raids or territorial claims, aimed at individual or small-group satisfaction. The idea that individual actions affect the whole community and the values of whole community influences individuals within the community as stressed by structural functionalism will also be put to test in assessing how individual actions regarding land acquisitions and cattle thefts have created grievances for entire communities resulting into inter-ethnic violence.
1.9 Hypotheses
The research is guided by assumptions that;
1. Socio-political and socio-economic factors have played a role in fuelling the Kipsigis-Kisii cross-border conflict.
2. Cultural perceptions have impacted on the conflict in Borabu-Sotik inter-ethnic conflict.
3. Indigenous inter-ethnic conflict resolution mechanisms can be applied in resolving the conflict.
1.10 Research methodology
The study will employ a qualitative research design which is descriptive in nature. This is because this approach could yield more information from the phenomenon under study. The study will make use of questionnaires, interviews, government documents and archival data to obtain primary data while the secondary data are to be obtained from books, journals articles, theses, newspapers and the internet sources. The study will be conducted in Chebilat, Kipsimboi, Riontonyi, Ekerubo, Koiyet, Ikorongo, and Ramasha areas along the Sotik-Borabu border in Bomet and Nyamira Counties. This is because these two locations share a common boundary- the Sotik –Borabu border which has been a battlefield for a long period, thus, making it the most appropriate location for the study. This study targets the County administrators, NGOs, religious leaders, educationists and residents of the above areas.
From the target population, the study will select the respondents using the purposive and snowball sampling techniques. Purposive sampling will be used to select informative respondents already known to the researcher. Snowball technique will be used where some of the respondents identified and interviewed will be used to identify more informants to be interviewed. This chain will go on until the required sample is attained. During the field study, about 40 people will be interviewed and 12 will fill the questionnaires. The 12 comprises government officials, NGO officials and County administrators.

The study will use both secondary and primary data. Secondary data will be obtained from review of books, journal articles, internet sources, magazines, and newspapers sourced from libraries like JKML, National Archives, and Kenya National Library Services. Primary data will be collected through fieldwork and analysis of reports from government and NGO offices on the subject of study. The study will use instruments like interviews, questionnaires and focus group discussions. All these seek to obtain data on the political and social-economic factors that leads to the conflicts and possible indigenous resolution mechanisms to the conflict between the Kipsigis and the Kisii communities along the Sotik-Borabu border.
Data recording will primarily be by hand though, where consent is given by the respondents, the study will store collected data electronically using a tape recorder for further transcription. The analysis of the data will be qualitative based on the description of most critical issues in relation to the objectives of the study. Presentation of findings will subsequently take a narrative form.
1.11 Proposed Chapter outline
1. Introduction
2. History of the Kipsigis-Kisii conflict
3. Socio-political and economic influences of the conflict
4. Impact of cultural perceptions on the inter-ethnic conflict
5. Role of indigenous inter-ethnic conflict resolution mechanism in addressing the conflict
6. Conclusion