A Teachers role is varied. Roles are functions a teacher might do willingly or voluntarily take on; while a responsibility is something the teacher must do as part of their job. A teacher’s role is to ultimately impart knowledge and expertise and encourage learners in a way that is easy for them to understand and replicate. A teacher needs to identify a learners needs. The teacher needs to assess the learners to establish their learning styles. Example by using V.A.R.K. Visual, Audio, Reading/Writing and Kinaesthetic. (Fleming (2006) (online) available at: www.http://vark-learn.com/introduction-to-vark/articles/ (accessed 23.05.2018) the teacher also needs to create a safe and supportive learning environment. It is the responsibility of both the organisation and the teacher to provide such an environment. Also to facilitate open communication that would encourage students to discuss the material, whilst assessing the various learning styles. It is important that all students have equal access to the learning including those with disabilities and/or learning difficulties. It is the role of the teacher to anticipate challenges pupils may face and help them to overcome these issues. It is important that the learner understands the aims of the session and the desired outcomes required. There can be many barriers for the learner examples of these are:
• Social – how a learner interacts with others or how they view learning.
• Physical – how a learner can access learning (e.g. sensory disabilities or reduced mobility)
• Intellectual – learners may be at different academic or skill levels.
• Cultural – might affect learner views, values and beliefs.
• Emotional – might affect learner motivation or ability to concentrate.
The teacher has a responsibility throughout the teaching cycle to monitor and ensure learner needs are met.
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Due to limited resources the study was conducted in one area: Hout Bay. The selection of the area was based on the following criteria:
• select area that offer the 3 major/top grocery retailers in South Africa;
• an area that is close and within reasonable travelling distance;
• area that differs in terms of population (income, education and background) and development, which comprises some of the environmental factors that are likely to have an impact on the success of a business and its marketing strategies; and
• area offering a sufficient combination of the three main racial groups mainly black, white and coloured.
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
The main objective of any company’s marketing objectives are to retain the loyalty of their customers while also hoping to attract new ones. Loyalty can also be seen in terms of customers store loyalty (Uncles et al, 2003), ”the consumer’s inclination to patronize a given store or chain of stores overtime” (Knox and Denison, 2000, p.34). The growth in use of customer loyalty programs in the retail arena attests to the trend that loyalty receives a great deal of attention from retail management (Bloemer and de Ruyter, 1998) and that the retail sector in particular has attracted the most obvious interest in the development of relational strategies (Egan, 2000).
According to Rayer (1996, p. 8) a retail or any customer loyalty program is a “…mechanism for identifying and rewarding loyal customers,” for being loyal to your organisation in discount, points, coupons and many other prices retailers offer today. According to Yi and Jeon (2003), loyalty programs are marketing programs designed to build customer loyalty through incentives. One can agree that loyalty programs are discriminating in a way that they only reward frequent shoppers instead of everyone or anyone who decides to shop at that particular retailer on that day and moment in time.
Yau et al. (2000) agrees that loyalty programs have a primary purpose to “foster long-term relationships with customers in order to create repeat purchases. However, (Hoffman and Lowitt, 2008) believes that “One of the ways to avoid customer defection in the retailing industry is to adjust loyalty programs to be more customer-centric…” with “…with more precise market segmentation and greater value proposition differentials among participating customers (Lacey and Sneath, 2006). Some people like Ekinci et al. (2008), demonstrated that customer satisfaction mediates the relationship between service quality and a customer’s intention to return. The relationship between the retail buyer and seller will forever remain an important thing to take care of for both parties. Retailers need to consistently monitor what customers want as much customers are monitoring what retailers are offering. The one with the best deal usually wins big time. Nako (1997) and Bolton et al. (2000) found that loyalty programs have a way to positively influence a customer’s choice of company, transaction values, resistance to counterarguments and retention.
Lewis (2004) and Taylor and Neslin (2005) have suggested that retailer’s loyalty programs increase purchasing. Kivetz et al. (2006) found that progress toward a reward can accelerate customer’s purchases.
Previous studies have been done by a number of researchers including Meyer-Waarden & Benavent (2007:01) “the impact of loyalty programs, which target existing customers, on repurchase behaviour in grocery stores”. These studies have shown “empirical insights into the effects of loyalty programs on the non-contractual, highly competitive retail grocery context” Meyer-Waarden & Benavent (2007:01) but failed to highlight the impact of the same programs to the same store’s foot traffic. This study will highlight the “repeat purchase behaviour” Meyer-Waarden ; Benavent (2007:03) when a “program provides adequate level of utilities and lower prices” Meyer-Waarden ; Benavent (2007:03). Back then, effects were (Nako 1997; Bolton et al. 200; Nunes and Dreze 2006a, 2006b) stronger for programs in other sectors such as airlines and similar industries that offer rewards using multiple-tier systems with convex reward schemes.
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
In this chapter, I described the methods and techniques used to collect, analyse data and report on the findings. I furthermore gave an understanding of the study area and the reasons for selecting the study area, techniques and methods of data collection. As stated above, secondary data of the subject area is limited, therefore this research was carried out using qualitative research methods including the use of exploratory research through interviewing industry experts with the intention of extending the body of knowledge. I developed a questionnaire for my respondents.
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
This study was carried out using a qualitative research approach. According to Susan E. DeFranzo (2011) qualitative research is primarily exploratory research. It is used to gain an understanding of underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations. It provides insights into the problem or helps to develop ideas or hypotheses for potential quantitative research. Qualitative Research is also used to uncover trends in thought and opinions, and dive deeper into the problem. Susan agrees that qualitative data collection methods vary using unstructured or semi-structured techniques. Some common methods include focus groups (group discussions), individual interviews, and participation/observations. The sample size is typically small, and respondents are selected to fulfil a given quota.
3.2 DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH SAMPLE ; FINDINGS
According to GasBuddy and Cuebiq’s report (2018) the $600 billion convenience store and fuel retailing industry is a competitive but growing sector and establishments that prioritize expanded in-store offerings and loyalty programs are winning the day. In the category of brands with over 1000 locations, four of the top five-foot traffic winners are convenience brands that emphasize their in-store offering rather than prices at petrol stations (GasBuddy and Cuebiq, 2018). Pick n Pay, which captured the top spot in this category did so by following improvements to its fresh food service and placing a stronger emphasis on its loyalty program. According to the store manager (Derrick, 2018) when fuel prices are somewhat similar customers seek out the brands that can offer them some form of a service and that reward the actions they take naturally while on the road (buying coffee, filling the fuel tank etc.) with loyalty points or discounts.
I then decided to observe 3 fuel stations for 5 consistent days for 30 minutes each. About 53% of the visits to the fuel stations and convenience stores lasted less than minutes. Figure 3.2.1 below details the number of cars that entered a fuel station on the 5-day period.
DAYS STATION 1 STATION 2 STATION 3
1 12 13 6
2 9 21 11
3 13 15 8
4 15 16 6
5 18 19 14
It is clear that Station 2 is the most popular fuel station in Hout Bay. I realized that in addition to loyalty programs real time offers mattered. Below Figure 3.2.2 details how the 100 respondents choose where to fill their vehicles.
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1. More than 85% of Australians live within 50 km of the coast zone.
2. Australia is one of the least densely populated countries in the world.
3. In Australia, electricity prices are highest in the world.
4. The largest sand island in the world, Fraser is also in Australia.
5. Australia and Antarctica were a single part 50 million years ago.
6. Australia is sixth largest country in the world.
7. In 1880 Melbourne was the richest city in the world.
8. 91% of the country’s territory is covered by natural vegetation.
9. Millions of wild camels represent a huge problem for the Australian ecosystem.
10. Didgeridoo is wind instrument originated from Australia and is one of the oldest in the world.
11. Australia has the longest fence in the world; its length is 5.614 km.
12. Australia has three time zones.
13. The victory of Australian footballers over the team of American Samoa in the 31 – 0 has become a record for the entire history of international matches.
14. Australian camels are imported to Saudi Arabia.
15. There are 60 designated wine regions in Australia.
16. The largest coral reef in the world – the Great Barrier Reef, is located in the sea areas of Australia. Its length is 2030 kilometers.
17. Australia was one of the founding countries of the United Nations.
18. Australia – is the only country which occupies a whole continent.
19. The Great Barrier Reef is the largest living entity on the planet.
20. The Melbourne city is the most ‘Liveable City’ in the world.
21. In Australia there is the world’s driest lake – Lake Eyre.
22. In 1892, a group of 200 Australians, dissatisfied with the local government, sailed to the shores of Paraguay and founded a colony there – New Australia.
23. In order to visit all the beaches of Australia, you will need more than 27 years.
24. The head of the country is British king or queen.
25. Before the appearance of people, Australia was home to many unique giant animals.
26. The world’s oldest deposit of fossils was found in Australia 3.4 billion years ago.
27. Australia is a country of immigrants.
28. Australia became the second country in the world where women received the right to vote.
29. Until 1902, bathing on the beach during the day was illegal.
30. In Australia there is a posinous octopus called Blue-Ringed Octopus. It causes complete paralysis and death in few minutes.
31. Until 1984, Anthem of Australia was “God Save the King / Queen.”
32. In the Australian Alps, snowfall is more than in Switzerland.
33. Murray River is the longest river of Australia. It is 2,548 km long.
34. Tasmania has the cleanest air in the world.
35. The average Australian drinks 96 liters of beer per year.
36. The world’s longest straight road is in Australia. It is 146 kilometers without any turns.
37. Boab trees are endemic of Australia. These trees can live for more than 2000 years.
38. Wine barrels were the invention of Australians.
39. Every year in Brisbane, the World Cup in the cockroach races is organized.
40. In 1932, the Australian army declared war on the emu population in Western Australia. Surprisingly, they lost.
41. Somehow an Australian tried to sell New Zealand on eBay.
42. In Australia Since 1979 no one has died from poisonous spiders.
43. Wave Rock in Australia is one of the oldest rocks in the world.
44. Australia is in the list of top ten countries with highest standard of living.
45. In New South Wales, there is a place where coal burns underground for 5.5 thousand years.
46. Australia is among the richest countries in the world.
47. 63% of Australians are overweight.
48. Voting for election is obligatory in Australia otherwise they have to pay fine.
49. Captain James Cook landed on the eastern coast of Australia in the 1770s.
50. Canberra was chosen as capital in 1908 as a compromise option, when both Sidney and Melbourne were eager to become the state capitals.
51. In Western Australia there is a pink water lake called, Lake Hillier.
52. Australia is the only continent on earth with no active volcanoes.
53. The largest population of Greeks outside Greece is in Melbourne.
54. The national foods of Australia are roasted lamb, meat pies and barbecued sausage in bread.
55. The summer period in Australia lasts from December to February.
56. Australians spend more on gambling than any other country.
57. Australia has the largest pasture in the world. Its area is approximately equal to the territory of Belgium.
58. Melbourne is considered the sports capital of the world because different kinds of sports develop here actively.
59. The national gem of Australia is Opal. It produces 97% of world Supply.
60. Once the country’s Prime Minister Harold Holt went to swim on the beach Cheviot. After that, no one else saw him
61. Australian football was invented specifically so that cricket players could keep themselves fit in the off-season.
62. Durack – the largest electoral district in Australia – is larger than Mongolia.
63. The mandatory seat-belt installation law was first adopted in Victoria in 1970.
64. The largest tram network in the world is in Australia’s Melbourne.
65. Gay bar in Melbourne has the right not to let women into its premises.
66. Government postponed the televised debates during the election campaign in Australia because it was coincided with the final of the reality show “Master Chef”.
67. The first European to visit Australia in 1606 was Willem Janszoon.
68. In the following centuries, many Danish researchers came to Australia who created maps and called the continent “New Holland.
69. In the last 50 years, about 50 people have died from a shark bite in Australia.
70. Box jellyfish in Australia killed more people than warts, sharks and crocodiles combined.