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1. Food Science and Food Safety Department, The National Institute of Nutrition, Hanoi, Vietnama carried on a study for evaluating the microbial contamination of bacteria specifically for identifying the presence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in raw foods of factory, schools and hospital canteens. For the appraisal of risk of bacteria and for the search of cross-contamination of infective agents, 177 raw food samples were analyzed; most of them were vegetables, meat (beef and pork), fish, and poultry. E. coli (45%), Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) (28.3%), and Salmonella (8.3%) were considerably found in raw poultry food samples whereby salmonella was detected mostly in the kitchen for inappropriate behaviour of hygiene. and classified as high?risk food. Raw meat, fish, and vegetables were also poisoned with the rate of 21.3%, 6.6%, and 18.5% of E.coli respectively. This study emphasized on the fact that preparation of food was in absolute need of proper hygiene knowledge to overcome the risk of bacterial contamination.
2. A study was conducted on Microbiological hazard identification and exposure assessment of food prepared and served in rural households of Lungwena, Malawi. Samples were collected from 6 villages in Lungwena, Malawi showing the presence of food-borne pathogens, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella species, Campylobacter jejuni and non-pathogenic E. coli, in 132 home cooked food samples consisting of maize flour porridge (MFP), (n = 41), fish (n = 37), vegetables (n = 28), beans (n = 13) and “Others” (n = 13). It was found that 35% of the food samples were contaminated with one or more pathogens; with 48%, 8%, 61% and 23% of the food samples being found to harbour E. coli, pathogenic E. coli 0157: H7, S. aureus and Salmonella species, respectively. C. jejuni was not detected in any food sample. Practices that promote the spread of the pathogens in the rural household kitchens were investigated. Poor food handling, preparation and storage practices were recognized as the means of the contamination of the food samples.
3. Al Mamun M from IPH(Institute of Public Health), Bangladesh conducted a study whereby 80 schools from 19 school zones of Dhaka city were covered for the assessment of microbial quality of selected street food items vended by school-based street food vendors. This study estimates unacceptable range of microbial contamination in 54% of sliced fruits samples, 59% of jhalmuri samples, 29% of chotpotis samples, 53% of vajavuji samples, and all (100%) sharbat samples. Most of the food venders were aged between 15-24 years old and educated below primary level. The emergence of food borne illness due to the low of quality of street foods was a threat of health for the school going children in Dhaka city. The lack of sense of hygiene of vendors, improper knowledge of food handling and low income (approximately 200taka/day or 3.00 USD/day) of vendors might be the reasons behind the contamination of foods.

A study that was assessed by Tambekar DH, Jaiswal VJ, Dhanorkar DV, Gulhane PB. and Dudhane MN from Department of Microbiology, S.G.B. Amravati University, India, showed that street vended foods in the Amravati City was related to the emergence of food borne diseases, thereby high lightened the prevalence of microorganisms. P. aeruginosa (39%), E.coli (21%), S. aureus (16%), Salmonella sp. (12%) and Proteus sp. (12%) were the microorganisms interpreted from 55 food samples. P. aeruginosa in samosa (25%), E. coli in kachori (32%), S. aureus in kachori (27%) were at highly contaminated with the pathogens. Poor water quality and hygiene throughout food preparation, laundry of utensils, poor personal and domestic hygiene, peeling of fruits long before consumption, and jammed, soiled and poorly maintained searching spaces were the most reasons for the deterioration of foods in this town area. the placement of outlets aboard busy roads with significant vehicle traffic, that increase mobile particles, or beside waste disposal sites and over jammed dwellings, adds to the contamination. These findings demonstrate that the ready-to-eat food vended in Amravati town represent a very important potential hazard to human health. Provision of health education to the vendors and imposing implementation of applicable sanitary practices would improve food quality.

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