1. In the immediate vicinity of the arenas, where the battles of “going to the death” took place, there were always trade tents. There, for quite large for those times money, you could get a drug that replaced the inhabitants of Rome with cosmetics – sweat of gladiators, as well as animal fat. Such an unusual set helped to eliminate wrinkles. 2. Ancient Rome was held in ancient Rome, dedicated to the god Saturn. From other celebrations, he was different in that these days the slaves had the illusion of freedom. They could sit at the same table with their master. It used to happen that even the owner cooked dinner for his slaves. 3. The poets and writers of the “Eternal City” did not give rest to the Emperor Claudius. Therefore they did not miss an opportunity not to make fun of it publicly. The fact is that Claudius always preferred exclusively women and was not seen in relationships with men. At that time it was believed that those who have connections only with the fair sex, he becomes like a woman. 4. Everyone knows that the inhabitants of ancient Rome loved bloody spectacles. But very few people know that the tradition to take the lives of others in the gladiatorial arenas safely migrated to the theatrical stage. Therefore, if according to the scenario the hero should have perished, then he was necessarily killed. Thus, for some actors, the first role became the last. 5. The attitude towards medicine was the most serious. Ancient Aesculapius usually did not forgive mistakes. For example, if during the operation the patient died, the doctor was immediately cut off. 6. Rich Romans lived in large and luxurious mansions. Those wishing to get inside had to knock: either with a special ring or with a wooden beater. Some of the most well-to-do Romans in the yard of the house were slaves on the chain. They replaced the dogs and the “bell”, warning the host about their guests with their cries. 7. In ancient Rome, rich residents instead of napkins and towels during the feast, wiped their hands on the heads of curly children. By the way, they were called “table boys”. Such a “service” was considered very honorable. 8. The Roman Emperor Claudius had a wife named Messalina. Even completely unencumbered by her compatriots, she struck with lust and debauchery. According to the stories of the historians Tacitus and Suetonius, Messalina had even her own brothel. “The First Lady” not only paid for the maintenance costs, but sometimes she served everyone. Once Messalina even arranged a match with another love priestess to find out which of them will serve more clients in the same time. The Emperor’s wife won with a twofold advantage: fifty against twenty-five. 9 . As you know, the occupation of prostitution in ancient Rome was considered an occupation completely normal and legal. Therefore, the priestesses of love did not need to hide their status. Moreover, they did their best to stand out from the crowd. So, for example, only prostitutes could walk around the city in shoes with high heels, which immediately attracted attention. 10. By the way, the spell “abracadabra”, familiar from childhood, came from Rome. It appears in the works of the personal doctor of the Emperor Caracalla, Seren Sammonik. To get rid of any disease or drive away evil spirits, this phrase should be written on the amulet in a column eleven times. 11. In the Roman army there was a special type of execution, which was called decimation (penalty of the tenth). Its meaning was as follows: the guilty squad broke into dozens and each of the soldiers pulled lots. The one who pulled the unfortunate, died at the hands of nine colleagues. 12. It is interesting that, according to tradition, personal names relied only on the first four sons in the family. If they were still, they were called ordinal numbers. For example, Quintus – the fifth or Sextus – the sixth. Over time, these names have become common. 13. During the fighting against a state or tribe, the Romans often resorted to a kind of ritual called “evocation”. Simply put, the soldiers turned to the enemy’s gods and asked them to cross over to the side of Rome. In return, they were promised to worship and respect in every possible way. 14. On the first day of the opening of the Coliseum, about five thousand animals perished on its sands, and fewer people. By the way, according to the estimates of the researchers, more than a hundred gladiators have left their lives on the arena every month. 15. In the Roman Empire, special attention was paid to transport communications. At the time of the state’s death, many roads stretched its territory, the total length of which exceeded fifty-four thousand kilometers.
English is one of the international languages. English has become dominate language in the world. Many people have used English for international communication and it is used as a key of knowledge, science and technology. English language is the first foreign language we teach to children at very early stages of schooling. Teaching foreign languages, especially English, to children at the kindergarten age is an issue that is great concern to Vietnamese parents. The kindergarten aim of teaching English in the early years of schooling is to motivate young learners to be ready and have self-confident in learning English at higher levels of education.
In learning English, vocabulary plays an important role. It is one of the elements that links the four skills of speaking, listening, reading and writing together. Harmer (1991) says: “If language structures make up the skeleton of language, then it is vocabulary that provides the vital organs and the flesh”. According to Linse (2006), language ability of students will be improved orally by vocabulary improvement. Therefore, vocabulary is the most important thing that should be aware of. One of the problems that usually occurs when the children learn English vocabulary is they seem to forget vocabulary easily and find it boring to learn vocabulary because the teachers only use the teaching technique which may be lack instructional aid of learning.
Teaching English to children is different from teaching adults and it is not an easy job due to the fact that they have different characteristics and motivation as well. In teaching vocabulary to kindergarten students, teachers have to be more creative and able to keep the students away from getting bored. The teacher should use an appropriate instructional media to attract students to engage in the lessons. Media such as animation, VCD, tape recorder, overhead projector, radio, television, computer, Interactive White Board and, etc. are such suitable media that could be used to draw kindergarten students’ attention. From the reasons above, this study focuses on choosing animation which are considered as a suitable media. Wood (2001) states that as a tool, the animation makes students more focused on the vocabulary because animation is interactive and addresses almost all senses as well. By using animation students seem to be easier to understand the vocabulary because children like animation. For kindergarten students, the animation is fun. According to Pultrati ; Mina (2015), animation offers a fun and meaningful teaching and learning experience.
In this respect, this study attempts to investigate the effectiveness of using animation in teaching vocabulary to 5 year-old learners in a kindergarten school in Ho Chi Minh City.
2. Literature review:
In this section, the study will provide the definition of animation, the advantages of using animation in teaching EFL vocabulary, the impact of using animation on learners’ attitudes and present previous studies related to the use of animation in teaching vocabulary.
2.1 Definition of animation:
The word animation derived from Yunami “anima” which is a soul and live. The word animation also has a mean is to give life to the object by stirring the object in the specific time. According to Oxford Dictionary (1991), animation “is the technique of photographing successive drawings or positions of puppets or models to create an illusion of movement when the film is shown as a sequence.” It means that animation is a film that shows a 2 dimension film. Therefore, it is a group of pictures or objects that can move and make a sound. There are many types of animation which can be used in classes. This study will mention three main types of animation. These types could be used in technology education and graphic communication classes: traditional animation, full animation, computer animation.
a. Traditional animation:
This type of animation refers to animation which is hand-drawn on paper. It was the process used for most of the productions throughout 20th century
b. Full animation:
Full animation refers to the process of producing high quality traditionally animated films that usually used detailed drawings and plausible movements, having a smooth animation. Full animation is combined by one frame out of 24 or two frames out of 24 and is animated at 24 frames per second.
c. Computer animation:
Computer animation means the digital pictures which are created through the use of computers. Bancroft and Keane (2006, p.87) define computer animation is produced by using animation software to create and duplicate individual frames. Computer animation is the most popular and easiest kind that teachers can use in class so this study will conduct the effect of using computer animation in teaching vocabulary to kindergarten students.
The animation that is used in teaching and learning vocabulary should have these characteristics. First, the duration of the animation is short. Second, the easy vocabulary can be used in daily communication. The intonation is calm and fluent. Final, it has moral value.
2.2 The advantages of using animation in education in teaching EFL learners:
Animation can enhance students’ vocabulary improvement through various lessons and topics. Using animation in teaching English has many advantages than using traditional ways. According to Clark (2000), teachers can use animation as a source of authentic language to engage students in the lessons, draw their attention, make a relaxing atmosphere in the class and improve students’ critical thinking and discussion skills. As an authentic input, the animation would give students opportunity to promote language practice. Sarko (2008) claims that by using authentic input in teaching, students would not only improve their oral communication practice but also apply what they learned in the class to acquire cultural information by themselves. In addition to, Nunan (1999) concludes that exposure to authentic language material plays an important role in making the connection between the knowledge in the classroom and the real world, and also reinforcing students’ implication their knowledge from the class into real life situation.
1. Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on January 17, 1706, in a large family with many children.
2. He was an active politician, writer, inventor, founder of a huge number of various public organizations, hospitals, and educational institutions.
3. He is called one of the “founding fathers” of the United States.
4. Benjamin Franklin portrait is printed on a hundred-dollar bill.
5. Benjamin independently studied French, Spanish, Italian, and also Latin language.
6. Benjamin invented a lightning rod.
7. Franklin married his childhood friend, who was called Deborah Read in 1730. They had two children.
8. Benjamin Franklin was the first Post Master General of the United States
9. From 1776 to 1785, Benjamin Franklin was the US ambassador in Paris.
10. For many years Franklin suffered from gout.
11. He was one of the three people who signed The American-French treaty of alliance (1778) and the Versailles Peace Treaty (1783).
12. He created the first detailed map of the Gulf Stream in 1970.
13. Franklin was elected a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1779.
14. He also contributed to building a first successful fire insurance company.
15. In his own printing house, Franklin printed even paper money.
16. Benjamin Franklin was the founder of the first US public library.
17. He invented bifocals glasses.
18. He loved swimming, in his early childhood he made wings for hands to swim.
19. Benjamin Franklin founded the Union of the Fire Society, a firefighting company in America.
20. He participated in the creation of the Declaration of Independence and the US Constitution.
21. He also collected extensive data on storm winds and proposed a theory explaining its origin.
22. He has developed his own time management system.
23. He published many of his works in the newspaper with female names like Polly Baker, Busy Body and many more.
24. Franklin founded a group called “Junto”, which included his like-minded people who wanted to make changes in society and express their creativity.
25. In the US there is a bridge across the Delaware River, named after Franklin, it is known as the Benjamin Franklin Bridge and connects Philadelphia and Camden.
26. Franklin loved to eat fish but he then decided to become vegetarian.
27. He was very fond of chess and was engaged in music.
28. In 1790, Benjamin Franklin tried to abolish slavery.
29. Benjamin Franklin never patented any of his inventions.
30. In middle age, Franklin suffered from obesity.
31. Benjamin Franklin invented odometer.
32. In 1727 he founded his own printing house in Philadelphia.
33. One of his first successful literary works was The Poor Richard’s Almanack (1732-1758).
34. In 1753, for merits in the field of studying electricity, the Royal Society of London awarded Franklin with the gold medal of Copley, at that time the most prestigious award of that time.
35. He could play musical instruments like guitar, harp, and violin. He invented the glass harmonica.
36. Benjamin Franklin invented a medical catheter, a chair-rocking chair and much more.
37. Due to weak financial conditions, Benjamin started working with his brother in the print shop at the age of 12.
38. In 1721, Benjamin brother started publishing a magazine for which Benjamin wants to write an article but his brother denied to publish.
39. Benjamin secretly published articles from other publishing house and so many of it is famous today.
40. Franklin almost killed himself twice while performing experiments.
41. He appeared on the first US postage stamp
42. Franklin invented mechanical arms to reach the upper shelves of the library.
43. More than 30 colonies of the United States have renamed in honor of Benjamin Franklin.
44. Franklin was the first deputy postmaster of North America.
45. Benjamin Franklin National Memorial is located at the Franklin Institute, the most visited museum and one of the oldest centers of science and development of education in the United States.
46. Franklin belongs to more than 14 different halls of Fame.
47. He was known as “The only President of the United States who was never President of the United States”.
48. He died on April 17, 1790, at the age of eighty-four.
49. The autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, which he wrote between 1771 and 1790 (was published posthumously) is considered a classic of the genre even today.
50. About 20,000 people took part in his funeral.