1

1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THIS STUDY

This study looks at public institutions, from the perception of internal executive, middle and lower management that directly and indirectly manage the teaching and research and councils at public institutions of higher learning in Namibia. It excludes private institutions that offer higher learning in Namibia. In Namibia, many private institutions of higher learning are registered with the Namibia Qualifications Authority such as the International University of Management and Lingua College (Namibia Qualification Authority, 2017).

The current and/or potential employers, like government, the private sector and parastatals were excluded from this study. If the perception of these current and/or potential employers could be assessed, the outcome of this study would most probably be different.

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The study only looks at leadership holistically as a dependant variable on organisational transformation of public institutions of higher learning in Namibia. This study excludes factor analysis such as ethnicity, gender and generation composition and African perspective on leadership. This study only samples the councils, executive, middle and lower management of the academic cadre; which may raise the issue of self-perception that may impact the conclusions to be drawn.

The recommendations and findings cannot be generalised to private institutions of higher learning in Namibia. The main concern was the level of trust the researcher can place on the data collected. This concern is derived from the fact that only the Vice-Chancellor and Deputy-Vice-Chancellors: Academic and Research at NUST and the Vice-Chancellor and Pro-Vice-Chancellor for Academic and the Pro Vice Chancellor Innovation, Research and Development at UNAM were sampled from the executive management. The deans as representatives of middle management, who manage academic faculties were sampled. Only the chairpersons of councils were sampled as representing external stakeholders. The representatives from the SRC on Councils were sampled. If all stakeholders, such as the administrative staff, students, employers or potential employers of graduates and alumni of these two public institutions could be part of the sample of this study, this could potentially change the outcome of this study, as the various stakeholders may have different opinions, thereby changing the analysis and ultimately the conclusions of this study. This study, however, could not sample all the subpopulations because it was impractical and uneconomical.

1

1.1: Introduction to oil pollution
Oil pollution has come to be an vast shortcoming these days causing destruction of the natural home ground of humans and plenteously of animals.it is one of the many forms of pollution that outbreak our earth , ignorance of this problem means that it will constantly extinguish earth’s ecosystem.
The element of human industrial acts, it threatens to mess with the oceanic surroundings that yield up quite seventy five % of our planet’s surface.we want to concentrate in the sorts of pollution, cite major spills as samples of their consequence, describe SAS radiolocation imaging as a serious oil pollution observation system, and say clean-up procedures and prices related to them.
we have a affinity to optimism to envision oil pollution as coming back from tankers and major accidents, several industries begrime the globe ocean even once their facilities area unit operational in their customary method. we are going to look in our paper the extent to that every kind of pollution improves to the presence of oil within the ocean .we are going to then see that despite a good type of stratagems that are imagined to focus on pollution, the impact on the surroundings remains objectionable, and natural habitats still die and get hurt. (Rahman, K. M.2016)
Most of the pollution within the oceans come about for reasons completely independent with unintentional disasters. as a result of that within the event of normal functioning of all oil-related industrial activities, pollution isn’t about to simply outflow.
The graph from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration web site clearly shows that enormous spills account for under a little share of annual pollution, injecting a “meagre” thirty seven million gallons of oil within the world ocean in every year.
The biggest lawbreaker is that the pollution by runoff from used engine oil that comes when oil changes, “runoff from land and municipal and industrial wastes” additionally to road runoff, along creating up 363 million gallons p.a. (NASA).
In comparison to the current supply of oil pollution, virtually each different appearance paltry. Plus, huge unrestrained spill that result when massive tanker or different quite accidents altogether area unit solely the fifth most serious source of ocean oil pollution, accounting for five of the oil that yearly ends within ocean( Bautista, H).
oil pollution is one of the most dominant form of ocean pollution which cause severe indemnities to facilities , ecosystems, and resources. Since from 1967 , there are about 25 chief oil spills in the world’s oceans, when the Torrey Canyon ran aground off Cornwall on march 8 discharging 38 million gallons of oil. The most recently arisen disaster in the Gulf of Mexico is a result the Deep water Horizon drilling rig explosion of April 20, 2010, which precipitated a sea floor gusher of almost 60,000 barrels of oil per day. This is the biggest oil spill tragedy in U.S( Rahman, K. M.2016)
1.1.1:Definitionof oil pollution
Oil pollution may be defined as “the contamination of environment (water sources like rivers, lakes, water reservoirs etc.) by the outflow or expulsion of oil from the tankers or typically from ships into water.”
Oil pollution has become a big problem facing port supervision oil tankers and effect the marine biodiversity and other aquatic organisms. (J.M. Baker,2001)
It is also termed as the release of liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into environment particularly through oil spills within the marine ecosystem, owing to human activity and cause pollution. this term is frequently given to marine oil spills where oil is released into the ocean or coastal water, but spills may also takes place on the land caused by oil contamination on the land surface .oil pollution may occur when oil in its abundant forms is introduced within the environment and contaminates them. Mostly the oil that pollutes environments is put there by people in one way or the other. Oil is poisonous to particular organisms and hence is dangerous for them. The problem is most extensive than only the organism cannot survive in oil. Other higher organisms eat them and hence the toxins would be carried through them in the food chain sometimes reoccurrence to human beings that acquaint with that oil in the first place( Nelson-Smith1973).
1.2: Causes of oil pollution
The sad certainty is that most of the reasons of oil pollution are usually man-made. As in the one of the case of oil spills which cause oil pollution. This may be happened by the carelessness or sometimes due to reasonable accidents. ( Gutierrez T, et al.2016)
1.2.1: Mechanical imbalance
In the case of negligence it include the seepage of tankers that occur because they have not been appropriately sustained or when these spills occur the employees do not suitably monitored the procedure of loading the oil in the tanker. Another reason of the oil pollution is that the crude oil outflows from the drilling rigs and wells, as well as off shore oil platforms. (Berry D,2016)
Fig.1.2.1: Oil pollution due to mechanical imbalance

Censol.co.uk
1.2.2:Human activities
Some of the oil pollution within the ocean is owed to deliberate actions of people. Some of the things such as routine maintenance and cleaning of oil carrying vessels introduce oil into oceans. some of the countries dispense their liquid waste of industries into the ocean there are protocols that how could be safely this is done, but that waste more often than not contain large amounts of oil that people have emptied down their drains. (Teske A, Aitken MD, 2016)
Fig.1.2.2: Oil pollution due to Human activities

lowyinstitute.org
1.2.3: Natural seepage of oil
It was also perceived that not all oil pollution is instigated by human activities. Sedimentary rocks at the bottom of the ocean grind down due to natural process and release oil .seepage also occurs from natural oil reservoirs in the oceans. All this oil being released into the ocean in one way or the other causes pollution. (J.M. Baker).

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Fig. 1.2.3: oil pollution through Natural oil seepage.

Whoi,edu

1.3:Oil spills
An oil spill is actually the accidental release of oil within the any water body as from a tanker, offshore drilling oil rig or underwater pipeline , usually presenting a hazard to marine life and environment and hence also lead to form pollution. Oil spills poorly maintained or broken oil or gas pipeline spews its contents onto its surroundings. (Nelson-Smith,1973)
Fig.1.3;Oil spills formed by discharging of oil from ship.

treehugger.com
1.3.1: Hazards of oil spills
Pollution from oil spills will have severe influences on marine and coastal environments. Oil, or hydrocarbons, will have an effect on plants and animals in a number of ways in which toxicant composites from the spilled oil are often eaten by animals directly, in their prey, as they breath or as they clean their fur or feathers, inflicting short and future adverse effects.

Fig .1.3.1:Adverse effects of oil pollution for the aquatic birds.

larg.standford.edu
In the last thirty odd years, the problem of oil spills and their effects has taken on a lot of significance. This can be as a result of once associate degree oil spill happens, it causes a mess of issues for the atmosphere and US. associate degree oil spill happens once liquid rock oil is free into the atmosphere by vehicle, vessel or pipeline. Oil spills often kill marine mammals like whales, dolphins, seals, and ocean otters. Oil coats fur of otters and seals, going away them at risk of physiological state. Even once marine mammals spurt the immediate effects, associate degree oil spill will pollute their food. (Sarbatly R et al.,2016)
Fig.1.3.1: whale killed due to oil pollution of ocean.

environmentalpollutioncenters.org
1.3.2: Largest oil spills
Crude oil and refined fuel spills from tanker ship accidents have broken susceptible ecosystems in Last Frontier, the Gulf of North American country, the Galapagos Islands, France, the Sundarbans, Ogoniland, and plenty of alternative places. the number of oil spilled throughout accidents has extended from many hundred tons to many hundred thousand tons (e.g., Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Atlantic Emperor, Amoco Cadiz), however bulk may be a restricted live of injury or impact. Smaller spills have previously proved to possess an excellent influence on ecosystems, like the Exxon port oil spill attributable to the remoteness of the positioning or the issue of an emergency environmental response. Oil spills embarrassed area unit typically way more detrimental than those onto land, since they’ll unfold for many shipping miles in an exceedingly skinny slick which may cowl beaches with a skinny glaze of oil. These will kill seabirds, mammals, shellfish and alternative organisms they coat. Oil spills onto land area unit additional pronto containable if a makeshift earth dam may be quickly demolished round the spill website before most of the oil escapes, and land animals will avoid the oil additional simply. (Krishnaiah D. et al, 2016)
Fig. 1.3.2: Oil gulf of North American country ; Gulf coast oil spill.

livescience.com
1.3.3:Human impact
An oil spill signifies a right away hearth hazard. The Kuwaiti oil fires created pollution that triggered metastasis distress. The Deep water Horizon explosion killed eleven oil rig staff.the hearth ensuing from the Lac-Mégantic mishap killed and ruined the town’s centre. Spilled oil also can pollute drink water resources. as an example, in 2013 two totally different oil spills contaminated water provides for 300,000 in Dafla, Malaysia 80,000 individuals in Coca, Ecuador.In 2000, springs were polluted by an oil spill in Clark County, Kentucky. Contamination will have an economic impact on commercial enterprise and marine resource mining industries. as an example, the Deep water Horizon oil spill wedged beach commercial enterprise and fishing on the sea-coast, and therefore the accountable parties were needed to compensate economic victims.( Borbon, A. et al)
Fig .1.3.3:Deep water Horizon oil spill depleted water by contaminating it

bdmariners.org
1.3.4: Environmental impacts
In general, spilled oil will have an effect on animals and plants in two ways: dir??t from the oil and from the response or cleanup method. there’s no clear association between the quantity of oil within the aquatic setting and also the doubtless impact on diverseness. A smaller spill at the incorrect time/wrong season and in an exceedingly sensitive setting might prove rather more harmful than a bigger spill at all over again of the year in another or maybe constant setting. Oil penetrates into the structure of the feather of birds and also the fur of mammals, reducing their insulating ability, and creating them additional prone to temperature variations and far less buoyant within the water. Animals United Nations agency suppose scent to search out their babies or mothers cannot because of the sturdy scent of the oil. This causes a baby to be prohibited and unrestrained, feat the babies to starve and eventually die. Oil will harm a bird’s ability to fly, inhibiting it from hunt or escaping from predators. As they preen, birds might ingest the oil coating their feathers, irritating the GI tract, sterilization liver operate, and inflicting urinary organ harm. beside their diminished hunt capability, this could chop-chop end in dehydration and metabolic imbalance. Some birds exposed to fossil oil conjointly expertise changes in their secretion balance, together with changes in their luteinizing macromolecule. the bulk of birds plagued by oil spills die from difficulties while not human intervention. Some studies have urged that but hundredth of oil-soaked birds survive, even once cleansing, although the survival rate can even exceed ninety %, as within the case of the Treasure oil spill. (Graus, M.et al,)

Fig.1.3.4:A surf scoter covered in oil as a result of the 2007 San Francisco Bay oil spill

response.restoration.noaa.gov
1.4: PREVENTIVE MEASURES TO AVOID OIL SPILLS
The companies that possess the ships or the businesses that own the pipelines ought to share the prices for the cleanup of oil spill. The rationale that all of them have to be compelled to share the prices of oil spill is that they’re answerable for the ships or the pipelines. For instance, if the ships or the pipelines have any issues that require to be mounted then those corporations should try this to stop the difficulty of oil spill, as a result of that may cause a heavy impact on living species. Therefore, the businesses have to be compelled to be answerable for all the problems.
The procedure of improvement of oil spill takes a protracted time and it’s terribly pricey. There are various things that are necessary to be done to clear-out the oil spill like, booms, barriers, and skimmers. the method should be done by holding the oil to interrupt down by natural means that so as for it to evaporate initial. Then oxidization, then use dispersant to interrupt up the oil and speed its natural bio degradation .
Fig.1.4: Booms, barriers and skimmers.

(i)enwikipedia.org (ii) elastic.com (iii) versatech.com
1.5: Cleanup and recovery
Cleanup and recovery from an oil spill is troublesome and be influenced by several factors, together with the sort of oil spilled, the temperature of the water (affecting evaporation and biodegradation), and also the forms of shorelines and beaches concerned. Physical cleanups of oil spills are terribly high-priced. Yet, microorganisms like Fusobacteria species reveal an innovative potential for future oil spill cleanup due to their capability to take over and reduce oil slicks on the ocean surface. (Sarbatly R. etal.2016)
1.5.1: Bioremediation accelerators
Lipotropic, hydrophobic chemical, comprising no bacterium, that with chemicals and physically bonds to each soluble and insoluble hydrocarbons. The bioremediation accelerator acts as a swarming agent in water and on the surface, floating molecules to the surface of the water, together with soluble like phenols and BTEX, forming gel-like agglomerations. Undetectable levels of hydrocarbons is obtained in made water and convenient water columns. By over spraying shininess with bioremediation accelerator, shininess is eliminated among minutes. whether or not applied onto land or on water, the nutrient-rich emulsion creates a bloom of native, indigenous, pre-existing, hydrocarbon-consuming bacterium. That particular bacterium break down the hydrocarbons into water and greenhouse gas, with EPA tests showing ninety eight of alkanes biodegraded in twenty eight days; and aromatics being biodegraded two hundred times quicker than in nature they additionally generally use the hydrofire boom to scrub the oil up by taking it off from most of the oil and burning it.
Fig.1.5.1: Working of bioremediation accelerator.

revolvy.com
1.5.2: Controlled burning
It will effectively cut back the number of oil in water, if done properly. however it will solely be worn out low wind, and will cause pollution.
1.5.3: Dispersants
It is used to dissipate oil slicks. A dispersant is either a non-surface active chemical compound or an active constituent further to a suspension, sometimes a mixture, to enhance the separation of particles and to stop subsidence or clumping. they will immediately disperse giant amounts of sure oil sorts from the ocean surface by transferring it into the water column. they’re going to cause the slick to interrupt up and kind soluble micelles that are quickly diluted. The oil is then efficiently unfolded throughout a bigger volume of water than the surface from wherever the oil was spread. they’ll additionally delay the formation of persistent oil-in-water emulsions. However, laboratory experiments showed that dispersants inflated noxious organic compound levels in fish by an element of up to one hundred and should kill fish eggs. Spread oil droplets infiltrate into deeper water and may lethally contaminate coral. Analysis indicates that some dispersants are noxious to corals. In 2012 studies found that Corexit dispersant had inflated the toxicity of oil by up to fifty two times.

Fig 1.5.3:A U.S. Air Force Reserve plane sprays Corexit dispersant over the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.

(i) Ocean.si.edu (ii) ecetoc.org
1.5.4: Dredging
This process is used for oils distributed with detergents and alternative oils denser than water.
1.5.5:Skimming
Skimming needs calm waters in the slightest degree times throughout the method.
1.5.6:Solidifying
Solidifiers area unit composed of little, floating, solid pellets, and hydrophobic polymers that each adsorbent absorb. They pack up oil spills by dynamical the physical state of spilled oil from liquid to a solid, semi-solid or a rubber-like material that floats on water. Solidifiers area unit insoluble in water, so the elimination of the coagulated oil is straightforward and also the oil won’t leach out. Solidifiers are proved to be comparatively non-toxic to aquatic and wild life and are proved to suppress harmful vapors unremarkably related to hydrocarbons like benzol, dissolving agent and resolvent. The time interval for solidifying of oil is controlled by the extent or size of the chemical compound or dry pellets additionally because the consistency and thickness of the oil layer. Some solidifier product manufactures claim the coagulated oil will be melted and used if frozen with solid or disposed of in landfills, recycled as Associate in ssNursingadditive in asphalt or rubber product, or burned as an occasional ash fuel. A solidifier known as C.I.Agent (manufactured by C.I.Agent Solutions of urban center, Kentucky) is getting used by BP in granular kind, additionally as in Marine and lustre Booms at prince Island and Fort Morgan, Alabama, to help within the Deepwater Horizon oil spill cleanup.

1.5.7:Vaccum and centrifuge
oil is sucked up beside the water, and so a centrifuge is accustomed separate the oil from the water – permitting a tanker to be stuffed with close to pure oil. Usually, the water is came to the ocean, creating the method a lot of economical, however permitting little amounts of oil to travel back in addition. This issue has hampered the utilization of centrifuges thanks to a us regulation limiting the number of oil in water came to the ocean.
Fig.1.5.7: A US Navy oil spill response team drills with a “Harbour Buster high-speed oil containment system”.

en.wikipedia.com
1.5.8: BEACH RAKING
Beach raking is used for coagulated oil that’s left on the beach is picked up by machinery.
Fig.1.5.8: Bags of oily waste from the Exxon Valdez oil spill collected by volenteers

response.resotoraration.noaa.gov

1.6:CONCLUSION
In all, as we live in this world we need to prevent issues, such as oil spill, because they have serious impacts on living species and our environment. By stopping these issues we can have a better place to live in.

1

1. Theoretical part
1.1. The role of idioms
Cognitive mechanisms reflect the work of human consciousness and give an idea of the ways of analysis, structuring of specific objects and abstract entities. Particular attention is paid to the study of the metaphor by cognitivists, believing that it occupies a central place in the cognitive model of speech.
Idioms are a necessary unavoidable cognitive and linguistic tool in English. They usually contain two layers of meaning: literal and extended. Literal meaning can be directly obtained from the literal meaning of constituent parts of the idioms, while extended meaning is generalized and abstracted on the basis of literal meaning.
In accordance to Kövecses,Chen and Lai in cognitive linguistic view majority of idiomatic expressions are based on conceptual metaphors and metonymies. This means that they are “conceptually motivated” by metaphors and metonymies. Cognitive linguistics views metaphor and metonymy as helping mechanisms to structure the human conceptual system.
The human conceptual system is largely metaphorical and controls systematic metaphorical mappings between abstract and concrete conceptual domains. Abstract structures are meaningful only indirectly, and can be understood due to their systematic relationship to directly meaningful structures. Conceptual metaphors and metonymies that help import structure to certain abstract domains of our experience, are motivated by, and grounded in, our bodily experience. This grounding provides the experiential basis of metaphor and metonymy. Idioms, which make use of parts of the human body, are more predictable than other idioms, simply because as human beings, we are completely familiar with our perceptions of the shape, size, and functions of individual parts of our own bodies, and we experience them every day. This is why it is easier for us to interpret the meaning of idiomatic expressions containing parts of the human body than, for example, idioms which contain names of animals.
1.2. ?onceptual methaphor and conceptual methaphor theory
A conceptual metaphor is not used in language, but is rather a conceptual idea in our minds that allows us to create a multitude of metaphorical linguistic expressions based on this metaphor. Kövecses (2010) summarises this relationship efficiently: “We can state the nature of the relationship between the conceptual metaphors and the metaphorical linguistic expressions in the following way: the linguistic expressions (i.e., ways of talking) make explicit, or are manifestations of, the conceptual metaphors (i.e.,ways of thinking)” . Metaphors are conceptual ideas in our minds, and they underlie the linguistic expressions that we use when talking. In his discussion on idioms, Kövecses (2010) claims that “idioms are products of our conceptual system and not simply a matter of language … hence the meanings of idioms can be seen as motivated and not arbitrary”. According to him, it is no accident that idioms look the way they do; they have been motivated by conceptual mechanisms when they were coined. Kövecses (2010) goes on to list the three most common conceptual mechanisms behind idioms: “The kinds of mechanisms that seem to be especially relevant in the case of many idioms are metaphor, metonymy, and conventional knowledge” . These three aspects of our conceptual system seem to play a vital role in the formation of idioms, and it is important to understand what is understood by these terms.

Conceptual metaphor theory is one of the most important ones in cognitive linguistics. It holds that metaphor is not a mere matter of words, but also an important way of categorization and conceptualization of human beings; the aim of conceptual metaphor is to realise and experience one thing or entity in terms of another; metaphor is both linguistic and conceptual phenomenon; our thoughts, languages and action are constructed based on conceptual metaphors; metaphorical expressions are the representation of metaphorical thoughts; the essence of our thoughts is metaphorical, and the essence of metaphor is conceptual; metaphorical mapping operates between two different conceptual domains; the direction of mapping is from the source domain to the target domain, and the basis of metaphorical mapping is abstract image schema structures . Conceptual metaphor is an important cognitive mechanism, which plays a major role in the meaning extension of the idioms.

1.3. Cognitive approach to idiom analysis
For instance, idioms can be approached in a cognitive linguistic way, which suggests that some idioms have analysable characteristics and the meanings can in fact be derived from the components . A comparative-contrastive description of the idioms is as necessary as useful since it allows a better understanding of their behaviour and of the boundaries conditioning their appropriate use. It becomes obvious that Cognitive Linguistics, with its experiential theory, has brought a completely new alternative analysis to the study of idiomatic language. Moreover, the cognitive linguistic approach is often thought of as one of the most useful methods in teaching idioms since the aim is to teach how to use the idioms and not only to learn them by heart .
?ognitive linguistics divides metaphors into two: conceptual metaphors and image metaphors . Image metaphors are conceptually simpler and are based on resemblance between two entities, whereas conceptual metaphors involve the mapping of rich knowledge and inferential structure which gives rise to a larger number of linguistic expressions . Besides, the cognitive semantic view can facilitate the learning and understanding of idioms for non-native speakers.
Cognitive linguistics claim that most idioms are motivated, where motivation arises from conventional images, conceptual metaphors and conceptual metonymies, which provide the \link” between the idiom and its meaning.

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1.4. System of idioms
Cognitive Linguistics has managed to successfully create a system in idioms. Cognitive linguists have grouped idioms and created a system based on their common concepts. As an example, expressions such as spark off and fan the flame have one common concept: fire. The idioms can be considered as motivated conceptually by general knowledge of the world, which entails a systematic structure that characterises a corresponding coherent system of the idiomatic structure . Chen and Lai (2013: 15) have brought an example of fire-related idioms used to describe the emotion anger, by using FIRE as the source domain and ANGER as a target domain and the connection made between the two ANGER IS FIRE.
This means that idioms can in fact be considered as motivated rather than arbitrary. Moreover, the connection between the concepts is called conceptual metaphor and it illustrates the connection between fire and anger. Conceptual metaphors are usually represented in capital letters . According to Chen and Lai it is easy to develop an understanding of the meaning of idioms through the awareness and knowledge of the conceptual metaphors behind them. However, according to Gibbs conceptual metaphors are not fixed, but rather created by the linguists following their intuition .
In other words, cognitive linguists follow their intuition to uncover language-mind links, image schemas and conceptual metaphors. Image schema is considered to be an abstract conceptual representation of the embodied experience of the everyday interaction and the observation of the world around us .
Gibbs (2007) questions cognitive linguists’ intuition-based approach because it focuses too heavily on introspection about matters of linguistic structure and behaviour, but agrees that intuition is a 13 necessary source for constructing hypotheses and suggests caution in creating conceptual metaphors, experiments etc. Stöver states that in order to have metaphoric understanding and not experience tension between the literal and non-literal while encountering a metaphor, learners should be made aware of metaphoricity (Moon 2009) and what it contains . In other words, using conceptual metaphors while teaching figurative language is not useful if the learners have not been familiarised with the concept and how it can be used.

1.5. Methods of idiom analysis
A comparative analysis of idioms is based on a confrontation of a source and a target language with the aim of finding parallel lexical items. According to Kvetko (Frazeológia 101), idioms of two different languages can be approached either from the systematic linguistic point of view (contrastive approach) or from the point of view of translating idioms in literary texts (translation approach).
In the contrastive approach idioms of L1 are compared with idioms of L2, the focus being placed on the mutual equivalence and language interference. Differences may occur in the form, content, meaning and usage of individiual words and expressions. Contrastive phraseology reveals that when comparing idioms of two different languages, two types of equivalents are recognized – phraseological or non-phraseological (word, collocation or periphrasis). An idiom either has its idiomatic counterpart in the target language or an idiomatic equivalent is not available because it either does not exist or the reality described by the idiom is not known in the target language. Such an idiom can be then substituted by a non-idiomatic counterpart, periphrasis or calque. As far as the degree of equivalence is concerned, Kvetko proposes three basic types (Lexicology 109) :
• absolute equivalence – idioms that literally correspond in several languages and come from the same source allowing for some variations, however, mutual correspondence prevails
• relative equivalence – idioms have identical or very close meaning but different lexical items
• non-equivalence – idioms that do not have their idiomatic equivalent and need to be substituted by a word, collocation or description
Within the spheres of absolute and relative equivalents Kvetko further distinguishes between the identical and close equivalents on the one hand, and partially and totally differentiated equivalents on the other (Frazeológia 103).
Based on Kvetko’s broad distinction and with regard to the continuum of absolute and relative equivalents, the degree of similarities and differencies between the idiomatic expressions will be in this thesis explored and sorted into the following categories:
• Absolute equivalence – the idioms in both languages are identical in terms of semantic, lexical and formal level
• Close equivalence – in this group belong idioms with a certain extent of varieties, however, these are not considered as substantial, such as morphological deviation (different grammatical case or preposition, use of singular in one idiom and plural in the other, use of compounds as opposed to single words)
• Partial equivalence – the idioms are semantically equivalent but realized with different constructions (use of different lexical means, different body lexeme, different syntactic structure, holonyms or meronyms, etc.)
• Non-equivalence – these idioms do not have any equivalents and are expressed non-idiomatically
The above listed categories will be more elaborated on in the practical part of the paper.