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1.1 -Identify current legislation guidelines policies and protocols relevant to the administration of medication?

?Health and safety at work act 1974.
?Control of substances hazardous to health.
?The misuse of drug act 1971.
?The medicines act 1968.
?Human medicines regulations 2012.
?Health and Social care act 2015.
?RPS handling of medicines in social care.
?Health Act 2006.

2.1 -Describe common types of medication including their effects and potential side effects?

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An analgesic is a medicine that relieves pain.These drugs can be sold as an over-the-counter (OTC) or prescription drug.There are different types of analgesics, including:Opioids (narcotics), such as Avinza, Kadian, or MS Contin (morphine), Oxycontin (oxycodone), Dolophine or Methadose (methadone), Dilaudid (hydromorphone), codeine, Demerol (meperidine), Duragesic or Actiq (fentanyl), and othersTylenol (acetaminophen)Combination medicines that contain Tylenol and an opioidNon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as Advil (ibuprofen), Aleve (naproxen), Celebrex (celecoxib), and othersAspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), which is sometimes considered an NSAID.Side effects of analgesics may include:Constipation,Drowsiness,Dizziness,Upset stomach,Ringing in your ears,Skin itching or rash,Dry mouth.
Antibiotics are a group of prescription drugs used to treat a wide variety of infections caused by bacteria.They aren’t effective against fungal or viral infections, such as a cold or flu. There are other drug classes designed to treat those infections.There are many different classes and subclasses of antibiotics, including:Penicillins, such as Amoxil and Augmentin (amoxicillin) and Unasyn (ampicillin)..Not all antibiotics work the same way to fight infections.Some antibiotics are bactericidal, meaning that they kill bacteria, while others are bacteriostatic, meaning that they prevent bacteria from reproducing.For example, penicillins, cephalosporins, and aminoglycosides are bactericidal, while macrolides, tetracyclines, and sulfonamides are bacteriostatic.Although most people can take antibiotics successfully, possible side effects include:Sun sensitivity,Stomach upset,Diarrhea,Vaginal yeast infection,Metallic taste in the mouth,Allergy to the drug, resulting in rash or hives,Severe, potentially life-threatening swelling due to drug sensitivity, called anaphylaxis.
2.2 -Identify medication which demands the measurement of specific physiological measurements?
?Warfarin
?Digoxin
?insulin.

2.3 -Describe the common adverse reactions to medication how each can be recognised and the appropriate action(s) required?

Common adverse reactions might be diarrhoea (some antibiotics for example); skin rashes; nausea – through to serious adverse reactions such as anaphylactic shock (facial swelling, blistering of the skin, wheezing and hives) leading to total system collapse and (if not treated with adrenalin) death. Unexpected adverse reactions can happen for any drug potentially that an individual is taking. This is why it is important that all information about an individual is recorded in full in their care plan and medication administration record (MAR). All adverse reactions and full actions taken following advice given must be recorded in full in the individual’s care plan, daily report and medication administration record (MAR).

2.4 -Explain the different routes of medicine administration?
Oral route consists of tablets,syrup, capsules or powders these are the most common way of taking medication. Sublingual route is where medication is placed between the tongue and cheek for example buccal.Rectal/Vaginal drug; is in the form of a suppository or liquid and is inserted into the rectum. Such as Diazepam for epileptic. Rectal medications are absorbed very quickly. Suppositories are available and are given into the rectum. Pessaries are given into the vagina. Only after training can these medications be administered.Intravenous is inject through the vein either on a drip or needle.intramuscular is injected into the muscle. Transnasal is through the nose with nasal sprays. Transdermal is through the skin with patches or lotions.
3.1 -Explain the types purpose and function of materials and equipment needed for the administration of medication via the different routes?
Materials and equipment need for the administration of medicine via different routes include; syringes used for oral suspension medicine for individuals who finds difficult to swallow, medicine cups/spoons for tablets and liquid medicine to measure, crusher for crushing tablets for individuals who have covert medication agreement in place, glasses and water jugs for individual’s to have their medicine with and gloves for when applying ointments/creams on the body and so on. Gloves must be worn and hands washed before and after when administering medication by all routes. For those with respiratory difficulties Inhalers are used and can be either worked by the individual when they breathe in or set automatically to activate when the individual breathes in which is measured by the doctor prescribing this. Nebulisers can also be used and work differently; a liquid is placed into a chamber at the base of a mask, a fine mist of the medication is released into the mask and the individual inhales.
Oral
This is medication that is taken via the mouth commonly in the form of tablets; using a non-touch technique these should be administered; direct from the MDS system if being used which is tablets and capsules only contained in blister packs. Medication cups and spoons can be used to administer these. Some tablets must not be crushed as this can change how the medication works.Transdermal medications come in the form of patches that are applied to the skin; the locations of where they should be applied and how to change these will be explained in the instructions that come with these.Topical medications come in the form of creams and gels and instructions should be followed.
3.2 -Identify the required information from prescriptions / medication administration charts?
‘The individual’s details: their full name, address and date of birth. The medication: the name of the medication, the dose, strength, frequency to be taken, the route and form, when the medication should be started and ended. Other: special instructions, any known allergies, prescriber signature.
I always pay attention to ensuring I maintain individuals’ dignity, choices and preferences. Sometimes individuals refuse their medication, this is their right to as I cannot legally and according to our medication policy administer their medication without their consent. I listen to why they are refusing; sometimes because they can’t understand why they need to have their medication, other times because they can’t swallow tablets. I explain what their medication is for and their effects and also give them information about how medication is available in liquid form which they would find easier to swallow.

It is my duty to make sure that that the individual is taking their prescribed medication and that their condition is monitored so the health of the service user does not deteriorate. When I am administering medication, I always ensure the right individual has taken the correct medicine and I do not leave any medication on table as the service user could pass it on to their friend or person sitting next to them. Most of the service users that I work with have dementia, so I take a great deal of ensuring there are not any preventable mistakes. Taking medication that is not prescribed for the individual could result overdosing or feeling ill. In my workplace the policy states any medicine should not be left out and staff to make sure service user has taken their medication before leaving. In my unit, each service user has their picture and medication chart attached together with covert medication agreement form if applies. This is a safe practice and also makes easier for new staff to find the right person for the right medication.If the client refuses their medication I have to record it on their MAR and in their care plan and inform my Manager then I would contact with the service user’s doctor for advice. This may involve a medication review to see what else can be offered.
In my workplace there is a return medication book and box where all left overs, unwanted medication are disposed and recorded until end of the cycle, the return medication box stays in the treatment room which is locked at all times until the chemist collects it. Such medications could be if a service user refuses to take their tablets, or a service user has an allergic reaction to antibiotics where then the course has been stopped and also deceased service users medication (after seven days after death could it be destroyed). The hazardous waste regulations, the medication policy and under the care home standards, it is a legal requirement that all medication to be disposed/destroyed safely.

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1.0 Introduction.
According to Eurostat (2017) explained that water is essential for life and can be referred as surface water and ground water and also there is renewal water resource which calculate the internal flow which comprises precipitation minus actual evaporation. Water can obtained through the combination of hydrogen and oxygen which results to water. Water has been good service both human being and other living things, water is on demand for life on earth because every living organism require water in order to survive. The source of fresh water is associated with the presence of forest and mountainous ecosystem which contribute largely on the presence of fresh water (Reid et al., 2005). The world population has increased and there is high demand for water resource use though there is increase of water scarcity compared to the ratio of the population consumption on water resource. Therefore the aim of this study will be to speculate factors for water scarcity and demand with the ratio of population, challenges facing water utility with the current population increase in the city areas also the study will find out the measures to be taken sustainable and accessible of water resource for economic and social development.
1.2 Background of the research problem
The urban population of the world is forecasted to reach 6.3 billion people from 3.4 billion in 2009, in which it present population growth and net migration. This increased population in the urban areas stress the demand of water with high consumption, also the urban population lack access to improved water supply and sanitation up to 20% since the millennium Development Goals has been established. The water demand in the world has been dramatically increased due to the increase number of people with high demand to water resource also due the development of economic activities such as agriculture , production of energy , industrial uses and human consumption is very high (UN Water 2008). The world population for supply of water is approximately to reach four billion people and sometimes up to two thirds of the global population. The current trend incur the global climate change has led to the threat on sustainable water suppl. the global fresh water has been expanding up to a mean rate of about 20% between 1960 and 2000 , in which the water use has doubled in one decade. The use of water by human has been unattainable. From 5% to 25% of global freshwater use exceeds long term accessibility and about one billion people live in areas with no good access to freshwater to sustain their life. Therefore also it has been explained that water use is predicted to grow by approximately 10% between 2000 and 2010 compare with rate of 20% over the past forty years (Reid, et al2005).

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1. What are conventional, alternative, and complementary medicine? How do they differ? Conventional medicine is treatment used by MDs and other health providers. Alternative medicine is used in place of traditional medicine. Complementary medicine is treatment used along with traditional medicine to treat a condition or illness.

3. What are the different dimensions of health? Describe each dimension. The dimensions of health are physical, intellectual, emotional, social, and spiritual health. Physical health is susceptibility to disease, body functioning, ability to recover physical fitness. Intellectual health is an ability to think clearly and effectively reason and analyze information. Emotional health is an ability to express/control emotions.

5. Describe two alternative medical systems. Ayurvedic medicine is an alternative system of medicine that originated in India. It focuses on restoring harmony to a person through the balance of mind, body and spirit. Naturopathy believes that diseases occurs when the body’s natural ways of fighting off disease has been changed or altered in some way.

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1. Many alternative and complementary medicine practices are viewed with skepticism within traditional/mainstream medicine. Why is this the case? What are the advantages and disadvantages to this skepticism? People become skeptical due to too much scientific evidence that backs more proof withcertain treatment. It makes people comfortable if it is more tested. However, too much skepticism may hurt their treatments.

3. Should the healthcare system in your country incorporate a more holistic approach with emphasis on all dimensions of health? Why or why not? They should incorporate holistic approach with emphasis on all dimensions of health in some degree but not much. Person’s wellness is the best when one’s health reaches the optimal in each of the health dimensions.

5. Why do some individuals choose to use alternative and complementary practices? Individuals with higher levels of education and those who have been hospitalized in the last year are also more likely to seek alternative or complementary medicine. Individuals who experience chronic neck, back, head, or other pain and those who experience gastrointestinal problems and sleeping issues are also more likely to use alternative or complementary medicine than individuals with other conditions.