1) What are the trade-offs Williamson faces? Explain. Trade Off that Williamson Faces: Pricing Sale of 7.9 million tickets for the games while maximizing attendance was primary concern But entire U.K has a lot of potential customers with very high purchasing power. This will automatically generate higher revenues from tickets. Attendance But being at a higher price the customer segment should be selective otherwise lesser attendance during the respective sports in the view of many venues were sold out, still effected with half filled stadiums. So selling the tickets at a higher price to selective customers under targeted segments because it was mentioned as Everybody’s Games. Keeping in the per view of all fans inclusive of average income candidates should enjoy it is a bit stressful situation for William to control the attendance So it is better by having a pricing strategy 1. Keeping in mind THE POPULAR SPORTS technique pricing them higher would lead to covering lossin revenue from unpopular sports but in other aspect of low pricing there is a mere chance of getting short on estimated revenue of 650 million. For average pricing for tickets: There are 7,961,000 tickets available: 650M/ 7,961,000= 81.65 USD Total revenues from top sports is 650M * 40%= 260M Tickets available: 1,246,000 So that we get, Pricing = 260M/ 1,264,000= 208 USD/ ticket 2. Best seats at the Start and Finish lines, and around the cycling track. Price range from 65-110 USD Q2) How might LOCOG’s Pricing Strategy vary by sports? If we look at the challenge before LOCOG, it had to price over 8 million tickets for 26 sporting events along with ensuring that everyone can purchase the ticket, from elite to common man. Bundling of tickets doesn’t work since people ignore the secondary sport if it is not popular, this leads to empty seats and diseconomies of scale happens. The pricing strategy does vary with sports. Popularity of sport is directly related to revenue earned. For instance, since football is the most common sports in UK, LOCOG hoped to generate 10% ticket revenue from football. Thus, the demand will be inelastic for hardcore loyal fans even if ticket price for football is raised. But it should not be raised much, otherwise fans will prefer staying at home and watching on TV. Demand exceeds supply for swimming, gymnastics and athletics, so these sports sell out at lower prices and they together contribute to 40% of the revenue. If we look at exhibit 9, it shows the various pricing tiers for various sports. These tiers will allow Paul Williamson to set the optimum price for most popular and least popular sports. He should study the marketing mix of various sports during Olympics and then decide which sport to promote more. Popular sports sell by themselves while less popular need marketing. This would allow more sales, more revenue, more seats filled. There should be no missed opportunity to make tickets as affordable as possible. 3) What are the characteristics of good pricing plan with respect to the case? Pricing is something that has the highest and the quickest impact in maximising the profits. The London Olympic Game ticket sales team used various pricing strategies for selling the tickets for their 300 sports events. Following are few strategies which were used by the sales team: • The committee decided upon to increase the number of pricing tiers for different sports which would keep some of the ticket prices low but achieve the same revenue targets. • The London 2012 Olympics became the first games where the tickets were booked via internet. This helped it enter the unchartered territories. • They considered it as “Everybody’s Games”, thus made it available to the majority of the crowd at an affordable price. • The committee came up with a new plan of providing “First Public Transport”, that is, the price of every ticket in the Olympic would include the use of London’s public transport network on the day of the event. • The committee also mentioned that higher prices of the tickets will provide the spectators with a better view for the game. • Ticket price plan included public transport which would reduce traffic congestion in and around the venues and increase participation. This would not only benefit the spectators but also the games. 4) What would you recommend LOCOG do? By the end of the planning, London Organizing Committee of the Olympic Games (LOCOG) were left with 2 options – exceeding the ticket revenue targets by $50 million with 70% attendance coming up short by $70 million with 90% attendance. As per what we recommend, the LOCOG should go ahead with the option of the option of having the 90% attendance and coming back short by $50 million. As a justification of my support, out of the total 2.8 billion revenues in the 2000 Sydney games, ticketing accounted for 551 million which is only 20% of the total revenue. Referring exhibit 5, 1.7 billion (65%) came from broadcasters and sponsors. The impact of attendance is very high on the compensations offered by the sponsors and broadcasters. Hence, the shortfall in the amount by choosing this method is covered up by the compensations offered by the sponsors and broadcasters. Further in, it is a matter of national pride if the stadiums are full of spectators during the event. Also, higher attendance means more revenue to the national economy by the people travelling from foreign countries. Hence, this option is a more viable and profitable option in the long run in our view.


This chapter introduces the background of the study highlighting the key concept my study. An outline of how I was brought up in the cultural and religious set up in the Basotho community. The reasons for my anxiety to know my cultural identity was that it was in shambles. I took interest to make ethnography of Setapa music of the Basotho which is seldom practiced today at my community in rural Gwanda south. My objective was to come up with ethnography of the Basotho community and its cultural identity. The statement of the problem, research instruments and significance of the study will be displayed in this chapter.
1.1 The problem and its setting
The Basotho are a minority group located along the border of Zimbabwe and Botswana. The minority group which takes dominance among the Ndebele in Gwanda South has their chiefs who rule them with the same Tswana totems. In the area where the Basotho are located there are few Kalangas, Vendas and Ndebele speaking people these had led to the hybridization and globalization reducing the identity of the Basotho culture.
1.2 Background to the study
Most Basotho people are along the demarcating border of Zimbabwe and Botswana in Gwanda south, it is at this area where I grew. The Basotho in Zimbabwe are closely related to those in Botswana with the chiefs heading them with same totem at both countries. However, the cultural identity seems to be different this is easily noticed by those in Botswana when the Basotho in Zimbabwe do border jumping.
The existing cultural differences in the two countries with same Basotho community were my inspiration to find out why the Basotho had lost their cultural roots. Also basing on the definition of ethnomusicology by Merriam (1976:5) in Nettle 2005 who defines it as „the study of music in or as culture,? I was inspired to know more about the Basotho and their music in particular by studying their music in the context of holoba pula, a traditional rain making ceremony. The definition of the term gave me an insight that if I study the music of the Sotho ethnic group I will
have an idea about their culture and the music they use during ceremonies. The Basotho people?s music reflects their norms, values and beliefs.
I was propelled to carry such a study by discovering cultural changes among the Sotho minority group in Gwanda. Pupils are taught Ndebele instead of Sesotho from elementary to tertiary level and this has led to loss of their original roots. Ordinarily we cannot separate a people?s music from their culture.
There are various factors which are the cause of cultural disintegration which include the following aspect: Christianity, modernity, migration, inter-marriages, globalization and formal education. To begin with Christianity is the major setback for the cultural identity, people have abandoned their traditional lifestyle and are devoted to Christianity. It is hard to identify an African community in a Christian setup. Siamonga (2015) suggest that the rain making ceremonies unite people in traditional setup and also, they bring their harvest crops to appease spirit mediums and the forgiveness of their sins.
At Kafusi community where I did my ethnography Christianity takes precedence in everything, people refuse to offer millet for preparing traditional brew for rain making. The very ceremonies we often had have been influenced by impact of Christianity.
The language has great impact in the Basotho community; it erodes the Basotho cultural norms and lifestyle. I was brought up in the society of the Basotho who have adopted Ndebele cultural norms in schools yet they have their own Sotho culture. I discovered that the Basotho?s culture is embedded in the Sesotho language, I therefore insinuate that the traditional musical ceremonies might have died away the moment Basotho were taught Ndebele ceremonial songs at school.
Looking at the Basotho youth, one would associate them with the Ndebele because of cultural erosion through scholarly teaching which is biased towards the Ndebele ceremonial songs. Modernity plays a profound impact on the culture destruction, culture is dynamic it varies with introduction of modern technology where people will associate the past as primitive and uncivilized though it is the very act that symbolizes who we are.
The Basotho people believe in ancestral worship where God is looked upon as the source of provision for rain, harvest and prosperity holoba pula and beer brewing to appease spirit medium is a ceremony. As part of their cultural practices these people conduct various rituals which
includes ntenela, for examining the ground ho ropa circumcision; of particular concern to this study is the ritual called holoba pula which is a ceremony for asking for rain from God using spirit medium called badimo. It appears as if the ritual is slowly dying away and very little efforts are put in order to preserve the dance and the ritual. This study has been designed to document the music of the Basotho which entails all their cultural, traditional, moral and social aspect. Through such a study it creates awareness among the youth and saves to archive Basotho treasure for future purposes.
I am a Mosotho by origin and in my experiences, I discovered that the problem which had led to youths not observing cultural norms might be ignorance about their own ceremonies and songs. I once listened to oral tradition given by old women and old men telling me about how they were forced to migrate from Mzingwane River by former Rhodesia colonial regime. They also told me how Ndebele became to be taught in schools all these inspired me to find out what made Basotho setapa music almost extinct. I felt obliged to carry out such a research to enlighten other growing youth to trace their cultural traits through knowing the setapa music of the Basotho.
1.3 Statement of the problem
The setapa music of the Basotho is seldom practiced in Basotho community because of the decline the frequency of conducting holoba pula ceremony. There is partial recognition of Basotho rain making ceremony rituals. Restoration of Basotho cultural traits in the context of rain making is very crucial. To create awareness among youth about the existence of other community and their ceremonial songs, the setapa music of the Basotho which is performed during rain making as holoba pula. If it can be restored and performed one would easily trace who the Basotho are. Setapa rain making dance for holoba pula songs will help me and the entire country to be aware of the existing Basotho who are losing their cultural traits and adopting the Ndebele culture eroding their own ceremony. All the research is based on extinction of the holoba pula rain making ceremony with Setapa dance of the Basotho. The statement of the problem is that although the Basotho have a rich culture defined by their traditional music called Setapa performed during holoba pula ceremony, very little has been documented about the both the ceremony and the music, hence this study.


1.1 Background of Study.
From the focal point of diverse and dynamic nature of modern development, the demand for energy has been obviously increasing from time to time. By this declaration, relying on fossil fuels alone will continue to add to the problem of unsustainable rural energy planning and management especially in developing countries.
This project is captioned the impact of integrating renewable energy sources for rural electrification optimization using an intelligient agent. The project is emphasized on enhancing stable power supply in rural area with Amoli community in Awgu town of Enugu state, NIgeria as a case study. The renewable energy sources used in this project are solar and wind plus the grid. Amoli have these two in aboundace when compared to other existing renewable energy. The problem faced in this rural area are lack of power supply or intermittent power supply which has led to the reduction of development in the area.
Wind and solar electrical power systems are recently getting lot of attention, because they are cost competitive, environmental clean and safe renewable power source, as compared to fossil fuel and nuclear power generation.
The reason for the world wide interest in developing solar and wind generation plants is the rapidly increasing demand for electrical energy and the consequent depletion of fossil fuels, namely; oil and coal , whose reserves are limited. The depletion reserves, increase in demand, and certain factors in world politics have together contributed to a sharp rise in the cost of thermal power generation. Many places also do not have the potential for generating hydro power. Nuclear power generation was once treated with great optimism, but with the knowledge of the environmental hazards associated with the possible leakage from nuclear power plants, most countries have decided not to install them anymore.
The growing awareness of these problems led to heightened research efforts for developing alternative sources of energy for generation of electricity. The most desirable source would be one that is non- pollutant, available in abundance and renewable and can be harnessed at an acceptable cost in both large scale and small scale systems. The most promising source satisfying all these requirements is solar and wind, a natural source energy . Solar and Wind energy conversion may be mechanical or electrical in nature, hut the present focus is on electricity generation.
Amoli is a hilly area despite occupying a region low in altitude which rises 350 feet above sea level. It is a transitional area between open grass land and tropical forest and has an average annual rainfall of seventy-seven inches (198cm). The population of Amoli is estimated at 10,477 by 2013.
Energy is an integral part of a society and plays a pivotal role in its socio-economic development by raising the standard of living and the quality of life.

1.2 Problem Statement.
The availability of renewable energy sources is limited, the shortage results in frequent power break-downs and disrupts daily life, man power losses in offices, agricultural activities and adversely affect the industrial production and thereby the economy.
The irregular power supply in Amoli and Enugu State as a whole has been a persistent battle between customers and energy suppliers. This is evident in the most recent tussle between the major energy supplier EEDC (Enugu Energy Distribution Company) and Enugu youths on the epileptic nature of the energy supply coupled with the deliberate issuance of inflated bills to customers.
Fossil fuels are running out and people are worried about the way burning fossil fuels damages the environment. For instance, the green house effect, acid rain and effect on the ozone layer. The greenhouse effect is caused by an increase in the concentration of gases such as carbondioxide (C02) in the earth’s atmosphere.
Other problems include:
i. Decline in generation due to Niger delta vandalisation
ii. Ageing of some of the generating units due to lack of maintenance
iii. Technical expertise
iv. Inadequate supply of transformers.
The critical loads like television, lightening, radio, fans, VCD and other type of compact disc that make life worth living are not secured as a result of intermittent power supply.
The Commonwealth Business Council (CBC), said that Nigeria was losing $100 billion yearly due to lost output and high costs for local business.
All these points to the urgent need for the local government/state to diversify/explore other sources of energy generation to save her citizens from such impasse.

1.3 Aim and Objectives.
The aim of this proposed project is to analyze the impact of integrating renewable energy sources in Amoli thereby recommending the most efficient renewable energy source. This will be achieved by the following objectives:
i. To determine available sources of renewable energy in Amoli
ii. To analysis the energy demand for a cluster of building/facilities in Amoli
iii. To optimize the energy demand for a cluster of building facilities in Amoli
iv. To design an optimized intelligent agent for an effective power stability
v. To Create a chart of the required number of recommended energy system to meet the various energy demand level.
vi. To design a Simulink model for the impact of integrating renewable energy sources for rural electrification optimization using an intelligent agent.

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1.4 Significance of the Study.
The relevance of this study in modern society cannot be overemphasized, most especially in a country like Nigeria where power supply is more of a luxury than a basic social amenity. It was often thought that renewable energy sources such as solar systems for instance are expensive and inefficient. However, studies have shown that the relatively high initial cost in harnessing the renewable energy from the sun becomes negligible over the life span of usage. Integrating renewable energy system provides the following impact/benefits.
i. It enhances the availability of energy and electricity to all communities.
ii. Environmentally safe and friendly.
iii. Enhances the creation of wealth and power reduction by offering potential for new jobs for both rural and urban dwellers.
iv. Encourage large scale agriculture.
v. Helps in mitigating climate change.

1.5 Scope of the Study.
This project is limited at analyzing the various impact of integrating renewable energy sources predominant for rural settlements. Thereby contributing to the socio-economic development of the community.

1.6 Organization of the work.
This dissertation report is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is an introduction of the work done. The second chapter is the literature review of the related work. Chapter three deals with methodology, design and implementation of the work done while chapter four is the data presentation and analysis of the work and chapter five is the conclusion and recommendations of the work done.