1

1.1. Kind of Research Methodology used?

Basically, researchers conduct a contrast of the accessible literature to detect the required reply or what has been written on a unique subject. Document-based research has to do with the reviewing of sources that are frequently sourced from or discovered in the library. Whenever factor out is made of qualitative research, one ought to be aware that the research documents exceptionally primarily based and vice versa. In doing all this, researchers are in search of to “immerse themselves in the assignment matter” and cultivate state-of-the-art principles that considerably decorate their grasp and clarification of truth. These sources consist of law.

Qualitative research “is a form of research in which researchers make an analysis of what they see, hear and understand”. In general, qualitative research is characterised by way of participatory research, the place a researcher performs a vigorous function in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of statistics. Therefore, qualitative research is a structure of research in which researchers make a comparison of what they see, hear and understand. It is aimed at accumulating statistics about a theme that investigates something about human behaviour that cannot be measured, such as perception, opinions, experiences, and so forth.

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1.2. The reason for using such kind of research methodology.

Generally, any form of research is important when one is searching for an answer to a legal problem. In this context, document based-research is important because of the following:

1.2.1. It provides present day solutions to the legal problem being researched.
1.2.2. It gives information about what other scholars have written on the subject.
1.2.3. It indicates whether anyone has written on the subject yet.
1.2.4 It indicates whether the concern being investigated has been absolutely explored and has for this reason turn out to be saturated.
1.2.5. It suggests whether there is a hole in the handy literature that nevertheless wants to be explored.
1.2.6. It shows whether there is a need to habits similarly learn about of the concern.

1.3 The ethical issues considered in conducting the research.

1.3.1. Does the research conform to the principle of informed consent?

If the research consists of minors, people under the age of 21 years, prior consent from parents or legal guardians need to be obtained. Generally, research that entails human men and women ought to continuously be carried out with the quintessential knowledgeable consent. Informed consent is a simple ethical philosophy of scientific research on human participants.

1.3.2. Does the research cause direct harm to research subjects?

However, the cardinal rule is that contributors should be blanketed from any possible discomfort or emotional misery emanating from the research project. Thus, it is your accountability as a researcher to inform the individuals of the typical cause of the study. One of the ordinary moral challenges is to have the functionality to weigh the manageable advantages of doing research in opposition to the opportunity of injury to the humans being studied (participants. Furthermore, one need to point out to the people their characteristic in the research assignment.

1.3.3. Does the research promote anonymity?

On the other hand, information can additionally have names or codes related to it, however the researcher will have to maintain the names or codes secret from the public. On the one hand, it is may also additionally be essential to enable the individuals the proper to determine out on how, where and to what extent their attitudes, beliefs and behaviour will be revealed. Secondly, anonymity can be associated with privacy and confidentiality. Firstly, it relates to the duty to make positive that it is now not feasible to find out the participants in a research project. Anonymity addresses many potential difficulties.

1.3.4. Does the research deal with the manipulation of information?

This capacity that members commonly have the right to agree or refuse to take part in your research. Factors such as coercing, undue effect or deceiving the participants point out the absence of or negate voluntary participation. It is your responsibility as a researcher to make sure that the participants participate in your research voluntarily. Accordingly, you need to usually recognize this right.

1.3.5. Does the research potentially tamper with the research field for other researchers?

It is unethical for the researcher to tamper with other researcher work especially of the same fields that he/she is also working on. It will also amount to plagiarism, using someone’s work and present it as one’s own without giving credit to the owner. It will amount to disciplinary steps to be taken.

1.4. The social justice issues that are raised in the scenario.

There was once a protest recently in the neighbourhood of Mamelodi, specifically the team named “the worried parents”. Moreover, the concerned mother and father as they had been indignant with the view in which the court deals and offers the criminal and their conviction. However, the group raised issues that relate to crimes such as the following:
1.4.1. toddler abuse.
1.4.2. child pornography.
1.4.3. statutory rape.

Question 2

About Plagiarism and examples

The term “plagiarism” is debated vastly in academia. What we seek to do here is to show you some of the accepted definitions of this term. The Oxford English Dictionary defines plagiarism as the “action or practice of plagiarising; the wrongful appropriations or purloining, and publication as one’s own, of the ideas, or expression of the ideas of another”. Furthermore, it is “fraud that occurs when a researcher steals the ideas or writings of another or uses them without citing the source.

2.1. It arises in conditions the place a researcher fails or omits to indicate clearly, for instance with quotation marks or indent and special font, phrases or passages taken verbatim, that is, word for word, from a posted or unpublished text, except crediting the authentic textual content and author.

2.2. It takes place in cases where a statute, case law, book, article, or digital text is paraphrased except acknowledging the supply or sources and the creator thereof.

2.3. It arises in instances where greater than a full-size section of or the entire statute, case law, book, article, or digital textual content is used.

Question 3

S v Makwanyane and Another (CCT3/94) 1995 ZACC 3; 1995 (6) BCLR 665; 1995 (3) SA 391; 1996 2 CHRLD 164; 1995 (2) SACR 1 (6 June 1995).

Introduction
According to CHASKALSON P : The two accused in this matter had been convicted in the Witwatersrand Local Division of the Supreme Court on four counts of murder, one count of attempted murder and one count of robbery with aggravating circumstances. The Appellate Division dismissed the appeals towards the convictions and concluded that the situations of the murders were such that the accused must get hold of the heaviest sentence permissible according to regulation. They appealed to the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court in opposition to the convictions and sentences. They had been sentenced to death on each of counts of murder and to long terms of imprisonment on the other counts.

3.1. The facts of the case.

It does not deal specifically with the death penalty, but in section 11(2), it prohibits “cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Chapter Three of the Constitution sets out the fundamental rights to which every person is entitled under the Constitution and contains provisions dealing with the way in which the Chapter is to be interpreted by the Courts. There is no definition of what is to be regarded as “cruel, inhuman or degrading” and we, therefore, a need to give meaning to these words ourselves.

In giving meaning to section 9, O´Regan J seek the purpose for which it was included in the Constitution. This purposive or teleological approach to the interpretation of rights may at times require a generous meaning to be given to provisions of chapter 3 of the Constitution, and at other times a narrower or specific meaning. It is the responsibility of the courts, and ultimately this court, to develop fully the rights entrenched in the Constitution. Consequently, any minimum content which is attributed to a right may in subsequent cases be expanded and developed. But that will take time.

3.2. The legal questions.

3.2.1. Is capital punishment for murder justifiable? The question that now has to be considered is whether the imposition of such punishment is nonetheless justifiable as a penalty for murder in the circumstances contemplated by sections 277(1)(a), 316A and 322(2A) of the Criminal Procedure Act ?

3.2.2. Can, and should, an unelected court substitute its own opinion of what is reasonable or necessary for that of an elected legislature?

3.2.3 Would the carrying out of the death sentence on these 143 persons have deterred the other murderers or saved any lives?

3.2.4 Should this be determined subjectively from the point of view of the individual affected by the invasion of the right, or objectively, from the point of view of the nature of the right and its place in the constitutional order, or possibly in some other way?

3.2.5 If the law recognises the right to take the life of a wrongdoer in a situation in which self-defence is justified, then, to deter others, and to ensure that the wrongdoer does not again kill an innocent person, why should it not recognise the power of the state to take the life of a convicted murderer?

3.2.6 This “planned and calculated termination of life itself” was permitted in the past which preceded the Constitution. Is it now permissible?

3.2.7 Does our constitution permit any convicted criminal, however heinous the crime, to be put to death by the government as punishment for that crime?

3.3. The decision of the court.

It gave its approval to a technique which, at the identical time as paying due regard to the language that has been used, is “generous” and “purposive” and offers expression to the underlying values of the Constitution. In S v Zuma and Two Others, this Court dealt with the approach to be adopted in the interpretation of the fundamental rights enshrined in Chapter Three of the Constitution.

As Kentridge AJ described in the first judgment of this court (S v Zuma unreported judgment of this court, 5 April 1995), many of the rights entrenched in section 25 of the Constitution regarding criminal justice are longstanding requirements of our law, even though eroded with the useful resource of the statute and judicial decision. In decoding the rights contained in section 25, these common law standards will be useful courses.

It used to be dealt with in this judgment solely with the provisions of section 277(1)(a) of the Criminal Procedure Act, however it is clear that if subsection (1)(a) is inconsistent with the Constitution, subsections (1)(c) to (1)(f) need to additionally be unconstitutional, so too have to provisions of regulation corresponding to sections 277(1)(a), (c), (d), (e) and (f) that are in pressure in components of the country wide territory in terms of section 229 of the Constitution. Different concerns arising from section 33(1) would possibly perchance practice to subsection (b) which makes provision for the imposition of the death.

3.4. The importance of the case in relation to the notion of Ubuntu.

While it envelops the key values of group solidarity, compassion, respect, human dignity, conformity to primary norms and collective unity, in its integral feel it denotes humanity and morality. Its spirit emphasises respect for human dignity, marking a shift from disagreement to conciliation. Mokgoro J held that: Metaphorically, ubuntu expresses itself in umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu, describing the importance of team spirit on survival issues so central to the survival of communities. Here the word was given its first full exposition by using the courts. “In this sense, ubuntu made its debut in the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court in S v Makwanyane.”

3.5. The link of transformative constitutionalism with this case.

Therefore, transformative constitutionalism needs to take place in an environment that promotes the democratic values of human dignity, equality, and freedom. The vision of the Constitution is to create a South Africa that is primarily based on democratic values, social justice, and fundamental human rights. For Langa J, this is the core notion of transformative constitutionalism: that people need to change. Particularly, the phrases “we, the people of South Africa” in the Preamble to the Constitution suggests this collective duty transform. In addition, the Constitution enjoins everyone to be concerned in a process to radically change South Africa according to Langa J.

Conclusion

It similarly states that “Even if the formation of this common norm is nonetheless underway, the Special Rapporteur considers that most stipulations beneath which capital punishment is really applied render the punishment tantamount to torture and that underneath any other, less extreme conditions, it nonetheless quantities to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. In conclusion, there is no express evidence that any method of execution in use these days complies with the prohibition of torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment in every case. The United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture in this 2012 file resumes the jurisprudence concerning execution techniques.

1

1.1
Describe organisational policies, procedures, and levels of authority in maintaining office equipment
It is required that all work equipment is maintained in an efficient state so that equipment is safe to use. If equipment is faulty then this means that it is not appropriate to use. The manual that comes with the equipment must be kept safe so that people working at Quest know how to keep the equipment safe. However, if the manual isn’t quickly available it is easily found on the manufacturer’s website. Instructions for office equipment should be strictly followed unless there is good reason to do so differently; which should be confirmed by a manager. Equipment should be inspected regularly to ensure that there are no faults or risks to health and safety.
At Quest Electrical, if a piece of equipment is faulty, such as a paper jam in the printer, or the phones won’t turn on, then someone will let a manager know and they will first follow the equipment’s manual, and if they still cannot fix it, then they will ring the equipment’s supplier and then ask what to do. As well as this, we would put a notice on or over the faulty equipment, so that others are aware that it is out of order. Office equipment which is used at Quest must be working so that myself and my colleagues can work efficiently.

The equipment that I use on a daily basis is:
Computers
Printer
Photocopier
Telephone

1.2
Describe how to use different types of office equipment
Computer:
To switch on the computer, then I press the ‘on’ button which is located on the computer under my desk. The screen is turned on automatically after switching on the computer. All computers require a password which is unique to each staff member. On my computer, I mainly use Google, Outlook, Word, Excel, Agathos, Computer Library, and ACT. For Outlook, Agathos, and ACT, it requires a username and a password, which is also unique to each staff member. Staff are trained in these programmes to ensure that everyone can use them in the correct way. To open any of these programmes, click on the icons, which are all pinned to the taskbar at the bottom of my screen. To search for something in the computer library, click the Files icon on the taskbar, click in the search bar located at the top right-hand side, type in the document name, and press enter on your keyboard.

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Printer:
The printer is located in the office, and all the computers in my office are connected to it. To print something, for example, an email with information about an enquiry, first make sure that the printer is switched on, has enough paper in the drawers, and has enough ink. Properties of the document you’re printing can be edited on the computer, for example, what page(s) you want to print, size of paper you want to print on, how many pages on each sheet, etc. After the properties have been set, then click the print button and the document will send to the printer and it will print.

Photocopier:
The photocopier is situated in my office and it is built into the printer. To photocopy a document, such as a quotation, then check that there is enough paper in the paper drawer, enough ink, and it is switched on. Lift the top of the photocopier up top expose the original glass, and place the document face down. Then carefully lower the top of the photocopier back down. When ready, press the start button (big blue button) to start photocopying. After it has finished, take out the original document from the original glass and take the photocopied document.

Telephone:
Everyone has their own telephone which is on their desk. To make a call, pick up the handset and dial the number. Press the dial button to make the call. There is a handsfree button located at the bottom right. To answer the phone, pick up the handset. To end a call place the handset back. To mute the microphone press the mute button at the lower right, press the button again to unmute the microphone. To hold a call, press the button with a hand symbol, this is on the right-hand side. To reestablish the call, press the resume soft key or the flashing red line button. There are two options to chose from when you want to transfer a call to someone else, there is a Blind Transfer, which is a transfer without an announcement, or there is a Transfer, which is announced.
To make a blind transfer, press the bxfer soft key while on a call. The caller will be put on hold. Dial the number that you want to transfer the call to and then press the dial soft key to successfully transfer the caller. To make a transfer that is announced, press the xfer soft key, the caller will be put on hold. Dial the number that you want to transfer the call to, press dial; when the person you want to transfer to answers, when the called person answers announce the call and press the xfer key to complete the transfer. To redial, press the redial soft key and use the navigation button to select the desired number, then lift the handset. To adjust the volume, press either the plus or minus sign button at the bottom right. Pressing these buttons when not in a call will adjust the volume of the ringtone. To take a call that is ringing on someone else’s phone, then either dial 8XXXX (XXXX is the extension of the phone you want to pick up), or to pick up a call from any ringing phone, dial *8.

Voicemail:
If I have a voicemail then the indicator at the top of the phone will light up red. An envelope symbol will appear next to my extension number on the display. To listen to the voicemail(s), press the envelope button which is located at the right-hand side of the keypad. You can also dial 1000.

1.3
Explain the reasons for following manufacturers’ and organisational instructions when operating equipment
It is crucial that everyone follows the manufacturer’s instructions to avoid using the equipment incorrectly, which could damage the equipment, make it unsafe to use or suppress it from working how it should. The manual will give you instructions on what to do if a piece of equipment breaks down. Organisational instructions are instructions which have been put in place by an organisation. Some of these instructions may include training sessions, instructions from a manager, health and safety guidelines, etc. Some of these specific instructions may include; who has access to print, photocopy, use the phone, etc. At Quest, everyone is taught how to safely and correctly use each piece of equipment, so that breakages are less likely to occur and equipment can be used efficiently. Training on all office equipment minimises the chance of health and safety regulations being broken, for example, if the printer is being incorrectly used and the wires have become damaged, then this is a risk to health and safety as it may cause a spark or liquid could be dropped onto a broken wire. Therefore, it is necessary to follow both manufacturer’s instructions and organisational instructions when operating equipment.

1.4
Describe the types of equipment faults likely to be experienced and the correct way of dealing with these
Computer:
Computers are constantly being used in the office, and it is easy to accidentally download a virus to your computer. A virus is a piece of software that can come attached to another software that you download or open. When the programme which contains a virus is opened, the virus opens too and it has an opportunity to attach to other programmes. Virus’ can cause your computer to malfunction and break. Usually, when a computer has a virus, it runs much slower than it should, it crashes and shows error messages, it may delete files, hijack your emails, etc. Viruses can be prevented by installing a firewall or an antivirus system to your computer, which will then act as a filter when downloading things from the internet, or opening spam emails, which may contain a virus.
Another problem which could arise when using the computer is that it may not be able to connect to the internet. At Quest, some programmes that are used require the internet to work, such as Agathos, email, and Google. If the computer doesn’t connect, first check that the internet router is switched on, if it is, open the troubleshooter which can be found by clicking on the network button on the right-hand side of the taskbar. This should find a solution. If not, contact a manager so that they can address the situation and find the best possible outcome.
Computers often crash and stop responding, and sometimes work that is not saved may be lost if the computer shuts off or if a programme force closes. To avoid work being lost, regularly press the save button so that if it does crash, not as much work will be lost.

Printer:
The printer may run out of ink. If this happens, tell a manager and they will replace the ink cartridges. Replacing the ink cartridges yourself if you do not fully know how could potentially damage the printer, or you could spill ink.
If the printer runs out of paper, check which drawers are empty and check what size paper the empty tray(s) need. You can find the paper trays at the bottom of the printer. To replace the paper, find the right sized paper for the empty drawer and place more paper into the trays. Once these drawers are shut and loaded with paper, the printer will resume printing.

Photocopier:
When using the photocopier, black lines and smudges could appear on the copied document, this is due to the glass needing to be cleaned, which can be done with a soft microfibre cloth or other special cleaning equipment.
Sometimes, the photocopier could freeze and not respond to anything, if this happens, wait a few minutes and the machine should sort itself out. If the photocopier doesn’t seem to be fixing itself, try turning it off at the switch, waiting a few minutes again, and turn it back on. If this still doesn’t work, contact the supplier.
Toner/ink could run out while something is photocopying. If this happens, follow the instructions either on the screen of the machine or in the manual. Following these instructions ensures that you are putting the cartridges back in the right place and the correct way; minimising the risk of damage to office equipment.

Telephone:
When on a phone call to a customer, one thing that may be a problem is that either you or the customer cannot hear the other person. This may be due to the volume of the telephone not being loud enough. To increase the volume of the telephone, press the + sign at the lower right-hand side of the phone. This changes the level of volume on your side. If it is the customer who is having problems hearing you, then try speaking up, if this doesn’t work, try ending the call and call them back again. In some cases, not being able to hear someone over the telephone might be due to the connection being bad. If it seems that this is the cause for the problem, it is best to contact the supplier and have them tell you what to do.
Another problem may be that the phone is not making calls or receiving calls. In this case, check if all the wires are correctly put in. If they are, contact the supplier.

Voicemail:
There could be a problem where voicemail is not of good quality. This is a problem as you might not be able to hear what the customer wanted, and you may miss information which is necessary. In this case, contact the caller and explain the situation. This problem should not occur often, if it does then contact the supplier as it may be a problem on their end.

1

1.1. Background of the study
Contraception allows women, and couples, to determine if and when to have children; and it plays a pivotal role in population control, poverty reduction, and human development (KATHLEEN McNAMEE MB BS, 2013). But when the fail, they result in unintended births which in turn lead to grave consequences for the health and well-being of women and families, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where maternal mortality is high and abortions are often unsafe (SARAH.E.K., 2011).
According to some studies, none adherence is one of the reasons for contraceptive failure and it depends on the methods used. For example, more efficacy was found with male and female sterilization and the long-acting reversible contraceptives, while low efficacy was found with hormonal contraceptives requiring more frequency of administration and consequently more adherence (James Trussell, P. , 2013). Other studies suggest that demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics have also an impact on the contraceptive failure rate. Subregional factors have been observed in some studies and some other studies also suggested that as a greater proportion of women begin using contraceptives, a greater proportion of women are likely to experience unintended pregnancies via failure (Singh, 2014). In some situation, drug interaction is another reason for contraceptive failure (Shaver, 2002).
Many studies show that contraceptive prevalence continues to increase and that the proportion of unintended pregnancies that result from failure is likely to increase concomitantly, thus, there is a need for more research on the correct use of these contraceptives in order to avoid failure and its consequence. More research is needed in developing countries, where in contrast with developed countries, little is known about contraceptives failure and its consequences (Black, 2010,2002).
This study aims to fill this gap, by evaluating hormonal contraceptive effectiveness in Rwanda, focusing on Gasabo district. Indeed, according to studies, contraceptive prevalence has increased markedly in Rwanda, yet few studies exist about their effectiveness, hence there is an urgent need to fill the gap (SURVEY, 2014-2015).
1.2. Problem statement
Contraceptive methods are highly effective methods of reversible contraception in controlling births (Black A. ,., 1995,2014). But their failure and discontinuations contribute considerably to lead to grave consequences for the health and well-being of women and families, particularly in low- and middle-income countries like Rwanda where maternal mortality is high and abortions are often unsafe.
As the failure rate is very high for such kind of contraceptive, research on this failure rate is needed to improve their effectiveness. There are very a small number of studies about these rates in developing countries, as most information available comes only from Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data. This study contributes to fill the gap by evaluating the rate failure in one Rwandese district.
1.3. Study Objectives

1.3.1. Broad Objective
This study is mainly aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives methods among women in Gasabo district.
1.3.2. Specific objectives
This research project is specifically aimed:
1. To determine the failure rate of hormonal contraceptives methods among women in Gasabo district.
2. To identify the reasons for discontinuing hormonal contraceptive.
1.4. Research questions
1. What is the failure rate of hormonal contraceptive methods among women in Gasabo district?
2. What are the reasons for failure?
1.5. The significance of the study

This study is mainly intending to evaluate the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptive methods among women in Gasabo district, Kigali city. Thus, we assess the failure, discontinuation rates of the hormonal contraceptive methods and associated reasons among users. Therefore, methods users and health care providers, from this district as well as the whole country will earn the information on hormonal contraception in order to reduce both their failure and discontinuation rates. And yet, the decision-makers will gain the way of overcoming the challenges of the family planning in Rwanda.

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