1

1: ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:
First of all, we thank Allah Almighty, because without his blessings we would not have been able to perform this task. We would like to mention the devotion of Miss Humaira , who directly coached us in all possible ways. It was our privilege to do this task under her supervision, so we are very thankful tiring efforts.

2: ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND:
The abuse of antibiotic has become a major public health issue all over the globe.
OBJECTIVES:
Our focal point is to review the publish studies on the antibiotic abuse . To assess the factors contributing to this problem, its effect and intervention strategies used in the reduction of the problem.
RESULTS:
The study demonstrated a high prevalence of antibiotics abuse . The reason of this high prevalence is lack of awareness.
CONCLUSIONS:
This review concentrate on the magnitude of this major health problems which lead to more nosocomial infection , high cost and antibiotic resistance.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

3: INTRODUCTION:
3.1: BACKGROUND:
Antibiotics, also known as anti bacterial, are powerful medicines that fight certain infections. They either stop bacteria from reproducing or destroy them. Before bacteria can multiply and cause symptoms, the immune system can typically kill them. However, when the number of harmful bacteria is excessive and the immune system cannot fight them all. Antibiotics are used in the senior. The first antibiotic was penicillin. Penicillin base antibiotics, such as ampicillin, amoxicillin and penicillin G, are still available to treat a variety of infections and have been around for a long time.
There are different types of antibiotics, which work in one of two ways:
A bactericidial antibiotic, such as penicillin, kills the bacteria. These drugs usually interfere with either the formation of the bacterial cell wall or its cell contents.
A bacteriostatic stops bacteria from multiplying.
Although antibiotics have wide variety of uses but still there misuse /abuse can lead to resistance towards wide range of pathogens and bacteria .Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health challenge, which has accelerated by the overuse of antibiotics worldwide .Increased antimicrobial resistance is the cause of severe infections, complicatio, longer hospital stays and increased mortality. Over prescription of antibiotics is associated with an increased risk of adverse effects, more frequent re-attendance and increased medicalization of self limiting conditions.
3.2: INTRODUCTION:
Antibiotics have been the groundwork of clinical medicine and have saved a huge number of people from life threatening bacterial infection, ever since the second half of the 20th century was recorded. However the last decade of 21st century have witnessed the abuse of antibiotic and emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance of different types of pathogenic bacteria around the world. The consequent failure of antibiotic therapy was associated with higher mortality and morbidity and prolonged hospital stay .During the past 2 decades, the prevalence of multidrug resistant bacterial infections had increased significantly in children . This problem was observed in community onset and health care associated infections. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is recognized as one of the greatest threats to human health worldwide .Globally 3.7% of new cases and 20% of previously treated cases of tuberculosis are estimated to be caused by strains that are resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin . For decades, these antituberculosis agents have been effective against tuberculosis, but today the effect is insufficient. Nowadays , only one half the multidrug resistant tuberculosis is effectively treated with the existing drugs (world health organization 2014). Apart from resistance, antibiotic overprescription is also associated with other problems (Table 1)
3.3: STATEMENT OF THE REPORT:
The purpose of this report is to access the factors contributing to this problem, the impact of antibiotic misuse and the intervention strategies used in the reduction of this problem.
3.4: FACTORS LEADING TO ABUSE OF ANTIBIOTICS:
The reason behind the abuse of antibiotic may be that people use antibiotics on self medication basis and don’t follow complete pattern regarding the use of antibiotics. Once resistance has been established it cannot be reversible and hence it will be difficult to treat variety of different infections caused by different organisms.
There may be several factors leading to abuse or over use of antibiotics. These factors may be at the patient level or al the level of doctors. Other factors include cultural factors, behavioral factors, socio-economic status of patients and level of education both at the level of care professionals and patients.
3.5: HARMFUL EFFECTS OF OVERUSE OF ANTIBIOTICS:
Taking antibiotics for cold and other viral illnesses not only won’t work, but it can also have dangerous side effects. Frequent and inappropriate use of antibiotics can cause other microbes to change at their molecular level. This is called bacterial resistance or antibiotic resistance. Treating these resistant bacteria requires higher doses of antibiotics. Among those bacteria’s that are becoming harder to treat are pneumococcal infections (which causes pneumonia, ear infections, sinus infections and meningitis), skin infections and tuberculosis. In addition to antibiotic resistance, overusing antibiotics can lead to other problems. Antibiotics kill many different bacteria, even the good one that help keep the body healthy. For example, some bacteria are good for digestion. Overuse of antibiotics disturb the normal flora of body which causes other bacteria to overgrow, like clostridium difficile which causes diarrhea. Other risk factors of overuse of antibiotics are listed in table 1.
TABLE 1: Risks that have been shown to be associated with overuse of antibiotic
Increase of antimicrobial resistance
Increase of more severe diseases
Increase of the length of disease
Increase of the risk of complications
Increase of the mortality rate
Increase of healthcare costs
Increase of the risk of adverse effects, some being life-threatening
Increase of re-attendance due to infectious diseases
Increased medicalization of self-limiting infectious conditions