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1. An average person is supposed to drink eight glasses of water a day which is roughly two litres per day, as the average drinking water bottled that are sold in the Malaysian market is 500ml which would be 4 bottles a day, 28 bottles in a week, 112 bottles in a month and shockingly 1400 bottles in a year. Our bodies are composed primarily of water, between 55 to 78 percent. This is why water is vital to us. Human beings can live on water alone. In fact, we can last for several weeks just by drinking water. Without it, we can only last for a few days due to dehydration, causing our vital organs to malfunction and eventually fail. Truthfully, our body need water to survive.

2. Do you know what humans, plants and fish has in common? No? Well, we humans along with plants and fish need water to survive. But every water we drink especially commercially sold water in the market has the level of uncertainty effects for our health which we are unaware of just yet. I myself am an avid H20 drinker and I have noticed how plastic water bottled effected our health, financial and environment.

3. Today, I would like to to encourage all of you here to become involved in stopping the use of plastic especially plastic water bottled. Firstly , I will look into the usage of plastic water bottled effects on our health. Secondly, I want to explain the comparisons of prices for buying disposable water bottled and reusable water bottled to our finances. And finally, I will talk about how our mere actions and ignorance are affecting our environment.

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4. Nowadays, millions of people especially from the developing countries favour the usage of commercially sold drinking water bottled. As stated in the article “A million bottles a minute : world’s plastic binge as dangerous as climate change” by The Guardian that “A million plastic bottles are bought around the world every minute and the number will jump another 20% by 2021, creating an environmental crisis some campaigners predict will be as serious as climate change.” It is clearly that the demands of these production are getting higher ever year but as a consumer we also have to know the after effects of our actions as well.

5. Let’s be honest every one of us in this room have had one of these in our lives. We often bought these single-used drinking water bottled whenever we want to be convenient in our daily lives. Do you think that this water bottled are convenient and safe thirst quenchers? Think again! Drinking from these is not necessarily safe as you think. First of all, drinking out of disposable water bottled have its negative effects to us. I have done my research and found out that this convenient water bottled are made out of Bisphenol A (BPA), the chemical used to make the plastic hard and clear. Usually, plastic containers that have chemicals like this can seep into the water. As such, we as consumers are drinking in these harmful chemicals. The risk is greater in areas where the product is exposed to direct sunlight.

6. The main chemicals that are used to produce plastics is none other than bisphenol A, or BPA. It is an endocrine disruptor that is in widely used products such as plastic food and beverage bottles and the lining of metal cans. If it is heated, repeated washing, acidity, and alkalinity cause the BPA in plastics to leach into our food and beverages. Further, BPA leaches into our groundwater from all the plastic sitting in landfills. And without doubt we ingest BPA from all the fish we eat that has previously ingested all that plastic floating around in the ocean.

7. This chemical can imitate the body’s hormones, and it can interfere with the production and secretion of natural hormones. BPA can behave in a similar way to estrogen and other hormones in the human body. Infants and young children are said to be especially sensitive to the effects of BPA. Research suggests it can impact human health in various ways and one of the impacts is toward reproductive disorder. In 2013, scientists from Brigham and Women’s Hospital published findings showing that BPA exposure can affect egg maturation in humans. A review of previous studies, published in 2015, found evidence that BPA can interfere with endocrine function involving the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland it also can affect puberty and ovulation, and that it may lead to infertility.

8. Other than that, plastic water bottled is also made out of PET: polyethylene terephthalate. PET is commonly used in commercially sold water bottles. While it is generally considered a safe alternative of plastic, and does not contain BPA but in the presence of heat it can leach antimony, a toxic metalloid, into food and beverages, which can cause vomiting, diarrhea and stomach ulcers. Shockingly, some studies have shown up to 100 times the amount of antimony in bottled water than in clean groundwater. The longer the bottle is on the shelf or exposed to heat or sunshine, the more antimony is likely to have leached into the product.

9. It cannot be denied that we spend way more on disposable water bottled rather than using reusable water bottled instead. According to an article “We’re Now At A Million Plastic Bottles Per Minute – 91% Of Which Are Not Recycled” stated that Several recent reports indicate the dire global situation associated with the world’s plastic use. Two statistics jump out immediately. One, that globally humans buy a million plastic bottles per minute. The second, 91% of all plastic is not recycled. On top of that, it is estimated that over half a trillion plastic bottles will be sold in 2020. It is obviously known that filtered tap water is cheaper than the water bottles that are sold in the market.

10. As we can see nowadays, the media often broadcasts news related to the environment as such especially how plastics wastage are affecting our environment. It goes to the massive extent from our environment worldwide and to our precious animals in the wild and the marine life as well. Plastic bottles are commonly made from polyethylene terephthalate (Pet), which take up to 400 years to naturally decompose, yet is highly recyclable. On geologic timescales, 400 years is not significant and one may make the claim that we can just wait it out until the bottles naturally decompose. However, there are two significant issues with this. There are no signs of decreasing plastic use, hence the plastic decomposition clock will constantly be reset. Secondly, and more importantly, we must understand how this increase in plastic waste globally will impact other systems and their function.

11. Apart from that, now that I have told everyone here the factors why we should stop the usage of plastic water bottles then I will tell you on how to overcome this matter. These steps can help us to avoid the effects of using disposable water bottled. Firstly, we have to drink from filtered tap water to ensure our safety. According to the article “Glass bottles vs. Plastic bottles” glass bottles is a more safer alternatives than disposable plastic water bottles because since glass bottles are nonporous, there is far less of a chance for bacteria and other harmful chemicals can leach into our drinking water when compared to plastic water bottles. Not only do glass bottles offer a better taste to us, they also are much easier to recycle.

12. In term of taste and reusability, one of the best characteristics of glass bottles, when compared to plastic water bottles, is the pure taste from glass bottles. If you have ever drink water from a glass bottle, you have probably noticed that there is little to no taste present. However, when drinking from a plastic water bottle, you may have noticed there is an odd taste that just won’t seem to go away. Some scientists have linked this phenomenon to the fact that plastic water bottles contain polymers that can alter the flavour of the liquid they are holding.

13. Glass is a unique material for its capability to be recycled endlessly. As you can see, when compared to plastic water bottles, glass water bottles are far more versatile for its recycle friendly materials that are cannot be found in common plastic containers. From the points given it is clear that using glass bottles is an ideal to store your liquid of choice. Not only will you immediately notice a difference in taste, you will also be protecting yourself from becoming sick from invasive microbial bacteria that finds its ways in the pores of plastic bottles. But some might not favour the usage of glass bottles so they can always choose to use water bottles that are free from BPA as it is now widely sold in the market.

14. Other than that, we have to refrain from buying plastic drinking water bottled to save our environment. According to the article “Glass bottles vs Plastic Bottles”, most plastic water bottles are made up of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) , a plastic known to accumulate bacteria over extended periods of time. While it is a recyclable material, it is often unable to be properly recycled due to additives that are infused into the plastic. This has created a recycling problem that has escalated out of control, which many feel like is an impossible task to reduce. Plastic Oceans Foundation in the USA recently highlighted the seriousness of our plastic epidemic when saying that, nearly 300 million tons of plastic every year, half of which is for single use. More than 8 million tons of plastic is dumped into our oceans every year.

15. Let’s treat our body well by drinking filtered water in a reusable water bottled to ensure our safety because, according to a scholarly article by Leonard Sax he concludes: “that endocrine disruptors may leach into the contents of bottles made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET). PET is the main ingredient in most clear plastic containers used for beverages and condiments worldwide and has previously been generally assumed not to be a source of endocrine disruptors”

16. Drinking from reusable water bottled especially metal or glass bottles can save you a lot of money and prevent from getting ripped off because referring to an article “Glass bottles vs. plastic bottles” stated that according to the National Center for Biotechnology Information United States of America, “Antimony is a regulated contaminant that poses both acute and chronic health effects in drinking water.” Since glass is not composed of any harmful chemicals like antimony, BPA, or polycarbonate, it is much more safer for storing water within extended periods of time, especially when your water is left in the heat. We can continue to buy tons of bottled water from the grocery stores and ridiculously spending our hard-earned money on bottled water, or we can be smart and ditch the use of bottled water for a better and safer alternatives.

17. Please think about the consequences of our actions towards ourselves and especially towards mother nature because according to an article “A million bottles a minute: world’s plastic binge as dangerous as climate change” stated that Between 5m and 13m tonnes of plastic leaks into the world’s oceans each year to be ingested by sea birds, fish and other organisms, and by 2050 the ocean will contain more plastic by weight than fish, according to research by the Ellen MacArthur Foundation

18. With all these being said, I encourage once again for each of you to stop buying disposable single- use drinking water bottled for a better health, to save money and be environmentally aware. Filtered tap water are just as pure as it is and can ensure our safety for a better health and if you ever contemplating to buy single- use plastic bottles then think again because the fate of our environment and safety of our health is in our hands to decide. Let’s do it for the sake of our world, environment and especially ourselves.

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1.1 Background to the Study
Economically, a well-developed method of payment in a country ensures safety, stabilization and well-functioning financial system. Proper and effective payment system create an avenue for quick and timely accomplishment of business transactions which help improve on production, leading to job creation and hence, economic growth. Good payment system has the potential of helping in the overall improvement of the micro and the macro sectors of economy.
According to the Bank of Ghana (2017), the basic payment systems take the form of institutional arrangements and procedures that enhance movement of financial claims between and among two parties in financial transactions. These institutional procedures and processes are in the form such as Real Time Gross Settlements (RTGS), E-Zwich, Mobile Money, Visa, MasterCard among several others.
In the last few years, the telecommunication industry has embraced the use of modern technologies which has now put the globe in unison and the most prevalent of all is the mobile phone usage which is of a medium of over 5 billion subscribers’ worldwide (Wireless intelligence, 2012). The adoption of technologies among the telecommunication networks has led to a collaboration between the telecommunication industry, and the banking sector which has created a new avenue that enhance business undertakings and business development in economy. Precisely, the mobile money transfer services, which provides time independence, easiness and fastness to subscribers who save cost patronising the service (Lee and Kim, 2007). Within the last few years has witness a prevalent use of mobile phones in Ghana as mobile phone has been converted from being an extravagance that was limited to the few individuals to a wide number of people in the country patronising its usage which is positively affecting lives. It is believed that the number of mobile phones in the country are fall more than the entire population. It is now easy to have access to mobile phones than before and this is made possible due to the interaction among the regulatory authorities’ interventions, strong competition existing between the telecommunication firms and the amount of investments being made on daily basis to strengthen the sector by the industry actors. A Mobile phone is now an essential substance for growth and development especially in developing countries like that of Ghana. It is a key to Ghana’s development and therefore cannot be underestimated. While Mobile phone has not only made it easy for people to connect with one another and entertain themselves, it has also made it possible to transact financial dealings within the shortest possible of time, and that is the mobile money services. The mobile money services has led to the reduction of the amount of cash in the society thereby gradually helping to achieve the cashless society so desired by the financial regulators in the country.
Mobile Money Transfer has seen transmute outcome to the life of the rural unbanked, who are normally ignored by the traditional moneymaking banks in the country. Mobile money is an electronic cash transaction. Is available in most countries in the world especially in Africa. The mobile money service gives way to users to store money on their mobile phones, transfer and receive money to and from users who are connected to the mobile money platforms. The mobile money service also makes it possible for users to make payments online, or in a physical market transactions and makes it easy for users of the service to connect their bank accounts to the mobile money service to enjoy banking on real time basis. In Ghana, the mobile telecommunication networks are the operators of the mobile money service. The operators create an account through the Subscriber Identification Module (SIM) of which the SIM number serves as the account number of the mobile money user. These services are normally classified as the electronic commence or trading. This makes mobile money service an alternative to the traditional banking system especially to the rural unbanked who are always almost neglected by the traditional banks. Simply, the mobile money service is now a digital alternative to cash. Prospects are certainly great that mobile money services will built-up the financial sector to millions of unbanked Ghanaians, predominantly in the rural areas where people lack the basic access to the traditional financial services. But by the use of mobile phones, certain variety of vital financial service could be enjoyed which they hither to, have no access to. This can lead to low cost banking to a number of people who once enjoyed banking service at a relatively higher cost. GSMA’s Mobile Economy (2013) report shows over 2.5 billion of the world working population has zero contact to basic financial services for the undertaking of financial transactions such as savings, fund transfers and the borrowing of funds. Mobile money service delivers the potential of cumulative worth of payments system and increasing access to formal financial services by those who currently have no access to it. The rural unbanked population in Ghana has the great chance of being on the mobile money platform due to the ever increasing access to mobile phone services in the country. This makes it easy for millions of people to have access to safe and secured platforms to undertake financial transactions at relatively cheaper cost.
According to the Bank of Ghana (2018), the mobilized fund outside the banking system and through the use of mobile money services reached a record GH¢2.3 billion ending December 2017. This figure represents a progression of 84.6 percent over the December 2016 amount of GH¢1.3 billion. The fund mobilized are normally held by the mobile money partner banks in the country. The statistics also indicates that mobile money accounts holders are 23.95 million relative to 11.43 million bank accountholders as at end December 2017. This may be as a result of one person having more than one accounts with different telecommunication companies. The total worth of mobile money transactions also increased from GH¢78.5 billion on December 2016 to GH¢155.8 billion at end December 2017 showing a growth of 98.5 percent.
The mobile money services is therefore an avenue of bringing those with limited access to the traditional banking sector, those who are predominately in the rural areas on board the formal financial sector to have the benefits of the services such as money transfers, savings, loaning and paying bills at relatively cheaper cost.
Aker and Wilson (2013) in their work showed that, the bank of Ghana in its attempt to achieve a reasonably level of financial inclusion among the rural population introduced EZWICH a biometric credit card that can be used at ATM stands, payments of bills and online settlements. Apart from this, the telecommunication networks in the country have introduced the mobile money platform which has achieve its feet within Ghana’s financial system. This study therefore seeks to examine the factors influencing the adoption of mobile money services among the rural unbanked in Techiman North District.
1.2 Problem Statement
The GSMA 2014 report indicates that there were 255 mobile money service companies worldwide. Ghana is one of such countries with four telecommunication companies providing such services, with mobile phone infiltration attaining a level in surplus of 115%. The sustainable Development Goals (SGDs) features general financial inclusion realisation for all countries and the use of mobile money services is an appropriate machinery that has the potential to be the main drive towards achieving financial inclusion in the world. Financial inclusion is about providing financial services at a relatively cheaper cost to those who are neglected by the formal banking services or those who earns little income. Financial inclusion assist the nation in checking and regulating financial institutions in the country.
The gap in usage of financial services among the rural dwellers in Ghana and that of the people living in the cities are so huge and the central bank of Ghana has undertaken several reforms to ensure financial inclusion in the country so as to achieve a cashless society.
Most of these reforms are more of legal than product to fulfil such desires of financial inclusion and little has been achieved from the reforms. The World Bank reported in 2012 that only 30% of Ghana’s population have access to bank accounts. This may be as a results of the lack of confidence in the traditional banking system coupled with the frequent collapse of microfinance firms in the country. Also, most of the banks in the country are situated in the urban centres living the rural dwellers with little to no access to formal banking system. As indicated by Gbombe and Tomoya (2014), the relative concentration of banks in urban centres with limited rural penetration is one of the reasons why the rural folks have limited access to banking services. Techiman North District is characteristically rural in nature with no viable banking services even in the capital of the district, Tuobodum. The only financial service provider that cut across the district is the Brong Ahafo Catholic Society of Development (BACSOD) which serves as a microfinance institution in the district. This has led to an increase in the cost of financial transactions in the district with most of the inhabitants travelling to the Techiman Municipality to transact financial activities. Being relatively a new district and rural in nature, the traditional banks have neglected the area. This is more of discouraging to the people in the area who have no choice than to rely on the use of mobile money services to transact businesses, sending and receiving funds and making payments.
Making financial services accessible through the use of mobile phones is very essential for national development and growth. This is because of the large number of people in the country that have access to the mobile phones and embedding financial system with the mobile phone goes a long way to ensuring the attainment of financial inclusion in the country.
Study conducted by Baako (2016) in the Kasena/Nankana West district showed that, in spite of the vital role mobile money service deliver in savings and payments, there are still so many impediments that hinders consumers from enjoying the full benefits of the service. Some of the impediments identified in the study included insufficient funds from the agents, unreliable network, long procedure in undertaking transactions and lot of time spent at the premises of the mobile money agents due to the long queues. The innovativeness of the mobile money services therefore has the potential of growing the formal financial service sector and it is prudent to institute a comprehensive research on the factors that influence the adoption of the mobile money services in the Techiman North District. This study will consequently seeks to find out the factors to help fill the knowledge gap in the field of mobile money services and also find out whether the usefulness, easiness to use, cost and associated risk of usage have effects on the adoption of mobile money services in the District.
1.3 Objectives of the study
This research seeks to examine the factors influencing the adoption of mobile money services among the rural unbanked in Techiman North District. To achieve the general objective of the research, the specific objectives are:
1. To evaluate the influence of perceived usefulness (PU) on the adoption of mobile money services in the unbanked population in the Techiman North District.
2. To examine the influence perceived easiness of use (PEU) on the acceptance of mobile money services in the unbanked population in the Techiman North District.
3. To determine the cost of usage (COU) and its influence on the use of mobile money service among the rural unbanked in the Techiman North District.
4. To establish the joint contribution of the perceived Usefulness (AU), perceived easiness of use (AEU) and the cost of usage (COU) on the use of mobile money service among the rural unbanked in the Techiman North District.
1.4 Research Hypothesis
H1 perceived usefulness (PU) has a positive effect on the adoption of mobile money services
H2 perceived easiness of use (PEU) has a positive effect on the adoption of mobile money services.
H3 cost of usage (COU) has a negative significant effect on the adoption of mobile money service.
H4 perceived usefulness (PU), perceived easiness of use (PEU) and the Cost of usage (COU) jointly have a positive effect on the adoption of mobile money service among the rural unbanked in the Techiman North District.
1.5 Significance of the study
Several information and technologies have been explored in the past and mobile phone innovations is one of them. Mobile money service is one of the technologies in the mobile phone applications and has penetrated in both personal and business domain. The impact of this technology has made it possible for people to have access to financial transactions irrespective of their locations so far as there is a mobile telecommunication network.
The adoption rate of mobile money services differ from one society to the other since it is relatively a new enterprise in the country and this research will have a major role to play on mobile money adoption. Policymakers worldwide have acknowledged the rationale behind policies that geared towards achieving financial inclusion (IFC, 2011). Though there are enough literature on the adoption of mobile money services, several of them emphasis on the urban areas with little consideration given to the underprivileged areas that are typically excluded from the traditional banking system. Also, there is nothing significant that has been done on the factors influencing the adoption of mobile money service in the country. For example, Mensah-Nyame (2013), conducted a study on the importance of mobile money in the city of Accra. The study was basically on businesses that use MTN mobile money services in Accra district. Baako (2016) also conducted a study on the impact of mobile money in providing financial inclusion for the rural population of the Kasena/Nankana West District Of Upper East Region. This study therefore seeks to make meaningful contribution to the already existing literatures on mobile money adoption and how the mobile money service can help achieve financial inclusion for the unbanked population of the Techiman North District and the in the country at large. The study will make contribution to awareness on how mobile money services can be planned to enhance broader adoption of mobile money service in rural areas considered to have slow rate of adoption. With regards, the study will provide understanding on how the rural unbanked access financial services, how they patronise the services, and the benefits they gain from it by way of sending and receiving funds.
The study will provide understanding on the financial conduct of people who dwells in the rural areas and how the assume the factors that influence their adoption rate. The aftermaths and results of this study may be of significant assessment to the financial industry and to other academicians who are interested in the field of finance to know how people react to innovative financial services like that of the mobile money. Based on the factors influencing the adoption of mobile money services, the research may offer recommendations for financial institutions who would be interested in setting up branches in the district.
The outcome will also assist policy makers, Central Bank, financial institutions and development agencies to ascertain areas of interest to provide appropriate support as well as recognising avenues of collaborations with mobile money service providers to make the required interventions geared towards achieving financial inclusion for the rural unbanked through the use of the mobile money services. The outcome of the research can
be implemented by government and the various interested parties to assist them choose from the best options in adopting and refining the existing non-cash payment systems since a consistent and effective payment system is prudent in achieving a sustainable and reliable financial sector in the economy and also enhancing the reputation of the central bank.
1.6 Scope of the study and delimitations
The Techiman North District is among the twenty-seven district and municipalities in the Brong Ahafo region of Ghana. The district is made up of sixty-four towns and villages with only five major towns namely; Tuobodum, the capital of the district, Krobo, Offuman, Aworowa and Buoyem. The district covers an area of 389.4km2 and most of the settlements are located along the main roads that is Techiman-Wenchi and Techiman Kintampo routes. The Techiman North District is predominately an agrarian community with most of the inhabitants engaging in subsistence farming with pretty few in trading. The District capital, Tuobodum has two banks namely, the GN bank and Nkoranza-Kwabre Rural Bank whiles the rest of the major towns have been deprived of any major financial institutions and this has motivated the researcher to consider the District as the choice of the study. For appropriation, the research will cover mobile phone users who are registered users of the mobile money service who do not have access to any formal banking service in the district and has resorted to the mobile phones for help. The study will focus on three variables which are the easiness of use of the mobile money service, the usefulness of the service and the cost of usage as these variables will determine the rate of adoption of the mobile money services is the district. Although they could be other variables influencing the adoption of mobile money service in the district, the study will concentrate on only the three variables.
The study will not focus on the adoption of mobile money services in businesses and will basically concentrate on the rural unbanked in the Techiman North District.
1.7 Organisation of the study
The whole study will be categorized into five chapters.
Chapter one will consist of the following; background to the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope of the study, limitations of the study and organization of the study. Chapter two will include theoretical framework, Conceptual framework, definitions of concepts such as financial inclusion, the unbanked population, literature review of existing works carried out by other researchers and a summary of the chapter. Chapter three will focus on the research methodology which will look at the study population, sample size and sampling techniques, research design, research instruments, pre-testing of instruments, data collection methods and the estimation strategies. The fourth chapter will be based on the results and discussions of findings, while chapter five will provide summary of the study, conclusions and policy recommendations of the study.

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1.Title: STUDY OF A CLASS OF A UWB CPW –FED MONOPOLE ANTENNA WITH FRACTAL ELEMENTS
INTRODUCTION:
In this paper studied about the Ultra Wide Band (UWB)coplanar waveguide(CPW) monopole –fed antenna. The technique used in this Multiresonance. Different shapes are added to antenna to observe the multiresonance which enhance the Impedance bandwidth. In this FIDELITY factor is greater than 0.92 .Time domain performance of the antenna is done and verified by using fidelity factor. In this the feed structure used is cpw and hexagonal radiator is used. It is observed that impedance characteristics is improved from 3-7Ghz .Band width of upper frequency is shifted to 8.8-10.9 Ghz.

2.TITLE:
AN H-FRACTAL ANTENNA FOR MULTIBAND APPLICATIONS

INTRODUCTION:

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This antenna excites multiple resonances and also shows good reflection coefficients and radiation properties. This antenna is simple and straight forward to design. Multiband is achieved by using this antenna which is the main proposed feature. The dominant resonance frequency is 0.36GHz at this frequency the resistance is very small 2.7ohms resulting a mismatch at 50 ohms this problem can be solved by using impedance transformation to obtain impedance match. variation of the resonant frequencies, simulated reflection coefficients S11 of the H-fractal antenna in different stages are looked over. This proposed H-fractal antenna is good working at 5.5GHz for WLAN band. The PSO
method has been applied to optimize the proposed H-fractal
for 2.45/5.5-GHz WLAN application.
3.TITLE: Dual-Band Antenna With Fractal-Based Ground Plane for WLAN Applications

INTRODUCTION:

In this paper studied about Dual band antenna with fractal based ground plane for WLAN applications. In this the ground plane is in fractal shape is used in order to improve the performance of solid ground plane and obtained the multiband behavior.. This multi band antenna is based on a equilateral triangular monopole .Fractal based ground plane has a good impedance match 50ohms at 2.4Ghz ,moreover
5.4GHz band has improved .Its radiation efficiency is over 90% .Radiation patterns are similar in both bands and directivity and efficiency have not been significantly changed by the use of the fractal-based ground plane with respect to a solid ground plane of the same size.

4.TITLE: Perturbed Sierpinski Carpet Antenna With CPW Feed for IEEE 802.11 a/b WLAN Application

INTRODUCTION:
In this paper studied about perturbed sierpinski carpet antenna with CPW feed for IEEE 802.11a/b WLAN applications. This antenna adopts modified sierpinski carpet geometry in planar monopole configuration. Return loss characteristics suggests that it is also used for Hiper LAN2 system. This antenna gain is around 3.2 dbi at lower band and 4.5 dbi at higher band. The radiation characteristics of proposed antenna suggest vertical mounting. The proposed antenna is analyzed using IE3D and verified using CST Microwave Studio (CST MWS). The return loss
of the fabricated prototype is measured using a HP8722C VNA.